今日の臨床サポート

HIV患者のPneumocystis肺炎

概要・推奨   

  1. HIV感染者のPCPはCD4陽性リンパ球数<200/µlでリスクが増加する(OG)。
  1. HIV感染者のPCPの診断に、気道検体のPCR検査は有用である。しかし、Pneumocystis jirovecciiのコロナイゼーションを反映し、偽陽性である可能性を考慮する必要がある(推奨度2 OG)
  1. HIV感染者のPCPの診断に、β-D-グルカンは有用であるが、その解釈には注意を要する(推奨度2 SG)
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  1. 閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲 覧には
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薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
柳澤如樹 : 未申告[2022年]
監修:味澤篤 : 特に申告事項無し[2022年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. 定期レビューを行い、加筆・修正を行った。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患(疫学・病態)  
  1. ニューモシスチス肺炎(Pneumocystis pneumonia、PCP)とは、Pneumocystis jirovecii によって引き起こされる肺炎で、亜急性の経過をたどる労作時の呼吸困難、発熱、乾性咳嗽を来す疾患である。
  1. なお、Pneumocystis jiroveciiは、原虫と評価されていた時期もあるが、現在はリボソームとミトコンドリアDNAの性質により真菌に分類されている菌であり、空気感染を来すことが知られている[1]。潜伏期間は4~8週間ほどである。また、血清による評価をした研究によると4歳までに75%がPneumocystis jiroveciiに不顕性感染しているとの報告もある[2]
  1. HIV感染者が発症する日和見感染症のなかで最も頻度が高い疾患であり、CD4陽性リンパ球数が200/µl以下で発病するリスクが高くなることが知られている。
  1. PCPは、AIDS関連日和見感染症の代表的疾患であるが、ステロイド長期使用、免疫抑制剤や抗TNFα抗体などの生物学的製剤や抗がん剤の使用中、血液腫瘍・骨髄移植、固形臓器移植後などのさまざまな免疫不全状態でも発症することがある。このコンテンツでは特にHIV患者のニューモシスチス肺炎について記載をする。
  1. 抗ウイルス治療の導入により、サンフランシスコや英国におけるHIV患者のPCPの発症率は、9.1~9.5症例/100症例/年から0.9~1.9症例/100症例・年に減少している[3]
問診・診察のポイント  
HIV感染症のリスク確認:
  1. 性感染症の既往:梅毒、淋菌感染症、クラミジア感染症、性器ヘルペス、尖圭コンジローマ、赤痢アメーバ症、ウイルス性肝炎、疥癬など

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文献 

M N Dohn, M L White, E M Vigdorth, C Ralph Buncher, V S Hertzberg, R P Baughman, A George Smulian, P D Walzer
Geographic clustering of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV infection.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Nov;162(5):1617-21. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.162.5.9707101.
Abstract/Text To detect whether there was geographic clustering of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia cases among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we performed a retrospective analysis of a clinical database. The rates of pneumocystosis were analyzed by zip code zones for evidence of geographical clustering. During the study period, 118 patients at our AIDS Treatment Center had a first episode of P. carinii pneumonia. An analysis of the 24 zip code zones for which a P. carinii pneumonia rate was calculated (requiring a denominator of at least 10 known HIV- infected individuals residing in that zone) showed a trend toward geographic clustering (p = 0.07); when all 45 Cincinnati zip code zones were included in the analysis, clustering of cases was observed (p = 0. 02). By contrast, no clustering was observed for 52 HIV-infected control subjects with respiratory disease or for 960 HIV-infected patients treated at our center during the same time period. These data raise intriguing questions about exposure to exogenous sources of P. carinii and suggest the need for prospective studies.

PMID 11069785
L L Pifer, W T Hughes, S Stagno, D Woods
Pneumocystis carinii infection: evidence for high prevalence in normal and immunosuppressed children.
Pediatrics. 1978 Jan;61(1):35-41.
Abstract/Text Using Pneumocystis carinii organisms propagated through three passages in embryonic chick epithelial lung cultures, specific antigens and antisera were prepared for use in counterimmunoelectrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescent antibody techniques. These methods proved to be specific and sensitive for the detection of P. carinii antigen and antibody, respectively, in sera, and were applied to the study of cancer patients with P. carinii pneumonitis (PCP), cancer patients without pneumonitis, and normal children. Antigenemia was detected in 95% of patients with PCP, in 15% of cancer patients without pneumonitis, and in none of the normal children tested. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of normal infants and children, acquisition of serum antibody to P. carinii was demonstrated to occur progressively with increase in age. By 4 years of age two thirds of the normal children were found to have antibody to P. carinii in titers of 1:16 or greater. These studies indicate that subclinical P. carinii infection is highly prevalent in normal children, analogous to other opportunistic infections where active disease is manifest predominantly in the compromised host.

PMID 400818
Lara Coelho, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula Mendes Luz
Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis and Mycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review.
Braz J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar-Apr;18(2):196-210. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Nov 23.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil.
METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included.
RESULTS: Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses.
CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
PMID 24275372
J A McKinnell, A P Cannella, D F Kunz, E W Hook, S A Moser, L G Miller, J W Baddley, P G Pappas
Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a detailed examination of symptoms, management, and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected persons.
Transpl Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;14(5):510-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00739.x. Epub 2012 May 1.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection for immunocompromised individuals. Robust data and clear guidelines are available for prophylaxis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related PCP (HIV-PCP), yet few data and no guidelines are available for non-HIV-related PCP (NH-PCP). We postulated that prevention and inpatient management of HIV-PCP differed from NH-PCP.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective case review of all pathologically confirmed cases of PCP seen at the University of Alabama Medical Center from 1996 to 2008. Data on clinical presentation, hospital course, and outcome were collected using a standardized data collection instrument. Bivariate analysis compared prophylaxis, adjunctive corticosteroids, and clinical outcomes between patients with HIV-PCP and NH-PCP.
RESULTS: Our analysis of the cohort included 97 cases of PCP; 65 HIV and 32 non-HIV cases. Non-HIV cases rarely received primary prophylaxis (4% vs. 38%, P = 0.01) and received appropriate antibiotics later in the course of hospitalization (5.2 days vs. 1.1 days, P < 0.005). Among transplant patients, NH-PCP was diagnosed a mean of 1066 days after transplantation and most patients were on low-dose corticosteroids (87%) at the time of disease onset. No significant differences in adjunctive corticosteroid use (69% vs. 77%, P = 0.39) and 90-day mortality (41% vs. 28%, P = 0.20) were detected.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who have undergone organ or stem cell transplant remain at risk for PCP for many years after transplantation. In our cohort, patients who developed NH-PCP were rarely given prophylaxis, and initiation of appropriate antibiotics was significantly delayed compared to cases of HIV-PCP. Medical providers should be aware of the ongoing risk for NH-PCP, even late after transplantation, and consider more aggressive approaches to both prophylaxis and earlier empirical therapy for PCP.

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
PMID 22548840
J Phair, A Muñoz, R Detels, R Kaslow, C Rinaldo, A Saah
The risk of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among men infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Group.
N Engl J Med. 1990 Jan 18;322(3):161-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199001183220304.
Abstract/Text We assessed the risk of pneumonia due to Pneumocystis carinii in 1665 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but did not have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and were not receiving prophylaxis against P. carinii. During 48 months of follow-up, 168 participants (10.1 percent) had a first episode of P. carinii pneumonia. The risk was greatly increased in participants with CD4+ cell counts at base line of 200 per cubic millimeter or less (relative risk, 4.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.1 to 8.0). Although most participants (60.7 percent) described no HIV-1-related symptoms at the clinic visit at which a CD4+ cell count of 200 per cubic millimeter or less was first noted, this finding during follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of P. carinii pneumonia. The development of thrush or fever significantly and independently increased the risk of P. carinii pneumonia in these patients (adjusted relative risks, 1.86 and 2.15 for thrush and fever, respectively). Most participants with CD4+ cell counts above 200 per cubic millimeter who had P. carinii pneumonia within six months were symptomatic. We conclude that P. carinii pneumonia is unlikely to develop in HIV-1-infected patients unless their CD4+ cells are depleted to 200 per cubic millimeter or below or the patients are symptomatic, and therefore that prophylaxis should be reserved for such patients.

PMID 1967190
J D Stansell, D H Osmond, E Charlebois, L LaVange, J M Wallace, B V Alexander, J Glassroth, P A Kvale, M J Rosen, L B Reichman, J R Turner, P C Hopewell
Predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected persons. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Jan;155(1):60-6. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.155.1.9001290.
Abstract/Text The Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study is a prospective, multicenter, observational study evaluating pulmonary disease among HIV-infected persons. For approximately 52 mo, 1,182 HIV-infected subjects were followed. All participants were evaluated for pulmonary disease on a predetermined schedule. There were 145 episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Low CD4 count correlated with risk of PCP (p < 0.0001); 79% had CD4 counts less than 100/microl and 95% had CD4 counts less than 200/microl. Subtle changes in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were associated with PCP. Univariate analysis identified recurrent undiagnosed fevers, night sweats, oropharyngeal thrush, and unintentional weight loss to be associated with risk among persons with CD4 counts above 200/microl. Subjects in whom CD4 counts declined to below 200/microl and who were not receiving preventive therapy were nine times more likely to develop PCP within 6 mo compared with subjects who received such therapy. A strong trend toward differences between the sexes was detected. Black subjects had less than one third the risk of developing PCP as did white subjects (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in risk by HIV transmission category, study site, frequency of follow-up, age, education, smoking history, or use of antiretroviral therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed low CD4 lymphocyte count (p < 0.0001), use of prophylaxis (p < 0.0001), racial differences (p < 0.0001), and declining DLCO (p = 0.015) to influence risk. Constitutional signs and symptoms indicate increased risk for PCP among HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts above 200/microl.

PMID 9001290
J L Davis, D A Welsh, C B Beard, J L Jones, G G Lawrence, M R Fox, K Crothers, A Morris, D Charbonnet, A Swartzman, L Huang
Pneumocystis colonisation is common among hospitalised HIV infected patients with non-Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Thorax. 2008 Apr;63(4):329-34. doi: 10.1136/thx.2007.088104. Epub 2007 Nov 16.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: When Pneumocystis DNA is recovered from respiratory specimens of patients without Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), patients are said to be colonised with Pneumocystis, although the significance of this state is unknown. Understanding risk factors for and outcomes of colonisation may provide insights into the life cycle and transmission dynamics of Pneumocystis jirovecii.
METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study of the prevalence and clinical predictors of Pneumocystis colonisation in 172 HIV infected, PCP negative inpatients undergoing diagnostic evaluation of 183 episodes of pneumonia at either the Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans between 2003 and 2005 or San Francisco General Hospital between 2000 and 2005. DNA was extracted from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens and amplified using a nested PCR assay at the mitochondrial large subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA locus. Colonisation was deemed present if Pneumocystis DNA was identified by both gel electrophoresis and direct DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: 68% (117/172) of all patients were colonised with Pneumocystis. No strong associations with colonisation were identified for any demographic factors. Among clinical factors, having a CD4+ T cell count CONCLUSIONS: The majority of hospitalised HIV infected patients with non-PCP pneumonia are colonised with Pneumocystis. Failure to use co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and severe immunosuppression are associated with an increase in the odds of colonisation. Pneumocystis colonisation among hospitalised patients does not commonly lead to PCP.

PMID 18024536
Philippe M Hauser, Jacques Bille, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Christian Geltner, Marta Feldmesser, Michael Levi, Hitesh Patel, Victoria Muggia, Barbara Alexander, Martin Hughes, Sarah A Follett, Xiaohui Cui, Flora Leung, Gillian Morgan, Adrian Moody, David S Perlin, David W Denning
Multicenter, prospective clinical evaluation of respiratory samples from subjects at risk for Pneumocystis jirovecii infection by use of a commercial real-time PCR assay.
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 May;49(5):1872-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02390-10. Epub 2011 Mar 2.
Abstract/Text Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection. Microscopic diagnosis, including diagnosis using the Merifluor-Pneumocystis direct fluorescent antigen (MP-DFA) test, has limitations. Real-time PCR may assist in diagnosis, but no commercially validated real-time PCR assay has been available to date. MycAssay Pneumocystis is a commercial assay that targets the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (analytical detection limit, ≤ 3.5 copies/μl of sample). A multicenter trial recruited 110 subjects: 54 with transplants (40 with lung transplants), 32 with nonmalignant conditions, 13 with leukemia, and 11 with solid tumors; 9 were HIV positive. A total of 110 respiratory samples (92% of which were bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] specimens) were analyzed by PCR. Performance was characterized relative to investigator-determined clinical diagnosis of PCP (including local diagnostic tests), and PCR results were compared with MP-DFA test results for 83 subjects. Thirteen of 14 subjects with PCP and 9/96 without PCP (including 5 undergoing BAL surveillance after lung transplantation) had positive PCR results; sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) were 93%, 91%, 59%, and 99%, respectively. Fourteen of 83 subjects for whom PCR and MP-DFA test results were available had PCP; PCR sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 93%, 90%, 65%, and 98%, respectively, and MP-DFA test sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%. Of the 9 PCR-positive subjects without PCP, 1 later developed PCP. The PCR diagnostic assay compares well with clinical diagnosis using nonmolecular methods. Additional positive results compared with the MP-DFA test may reflect low-level infection or colonization.

PMID 21367988
M Cruciani, P Marcati, M Malena, O Bosco, G Serpelloni, C Mengoli
Meta-analysis of diagnostic procedures for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-1-infected patients.
Eur Respir J. 2002 Oct;20(4):982-9.
Abstract/Text Sputum induction is a simple and noninvasive procedure for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus-1-positive patients, although less sensitive than bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In order to obtain an overview of the diagnostic accuracy of sputum induction, a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the comparative sensitivity and specificity of BAL (the "gold standard") and sputum induction was performed. The odds ratio and related 95% confidence interval were calculated using summary receiving operating characteristic curves as well as fixed-effect and random-effect models. Based on pooled data, the negative and positive predictive values were calculated for a range of PCP prevalence using a Bayesian approach. Seven prospective studies assessed the comparative accuracy of BAL and sputum induction. On the whole, sputum induction demonstrated 55.5% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity. The sensitivity of sputum induction was significantly higher with immunofluorescence than with cytochemical staining (67.1 versus 43.1%). In settings of 25-60% prevalence of PCP, the positive and negative predictive values ranged 86-96.7 and 66.2-89.8, respectively, with immunofluorescence, and 79-94.4 and 53-83.5% with cytochemical staining. In conclusion, in a setting of low prevalence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, sputum induction, particularly with immunostaining, appears to be adequate for clinical decision-making.

PMID 12412693
J Torres, M Goldman, L J Wheat, X Tang, M S Bartlett, J W Smith, S D Allen, C H Lee
Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with polymerase chain reaction: a blinded comparison to standard methods.
Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;30(1):141-5. doi: 10.1086/313584.
Abstract/Text Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is an important cause of morbidity and death among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of respiratory specimens has been investigated as a rapid diagnostic method. We have previously reported on the utility of this technique for diagnosing PCP in HIV-infected patients. In this report we evaluate PCR used in a blinded study design to avoid biases inherent to retrospective and nonblinded studies. The diagnosis of PCP was established on the basis of clinical findings and morphological studies of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and/or lung biopsy specimens before PCR testing. PCR was performed without knowledge of the diagnosis. PCR results were graded from "negative" to 3+ on the basis of intensity of the banding pattern. Forty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, including 18 with proven PCP and 29 with other conditions. PCR was positive at grade 1 or higher for all 18 patients with PCP (100% sensitivity), at grade 2 or higher for 13 patients (72.2% sensitivity), and at grade 1 or higher for 4 of the 29 control patients (specificity of 86.2%). If a grade 2 or higher was required for diagnosis, the specificity improved to 100%. Results were reproducible with testing of a second aliquot for 46 of 47 patients (97.8%). Our findings confirm that PCR is a sensitive and reproducible test for detection of P. carinii in BAL specimens. Problems with false-positive results for control patients, however, limit the applicability of this method.

PMID 10619742
Alison Morris, Kenneth Wei, Kamyar Afshar, Laurence Huang
Epidemiology and clinical significance of pneumocystis colonization.
J Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 1;197(1):10-7. doi: 10.1086/523814.
Abstract/Text Pneumocystis pneumonia has long been recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations, particularly those with HIV infection. Pneumocystis colonization-that is, detection of the organism or its DNA, without signs or symptoms of pneumonia-has recently been described, and accumulating evidence suggests that it may be an important clinical phenomenon. Sensitive molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction are frequently used to identify Pneumocystis colonization. Low levels of Pneumocystis in the lungs may stimulate pulmonary inflammation and may play a role in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we discuss evidence for the occurrence of Pneumocystis colonization in animals as well as the epidemiology and risk factors for Pneumocystis colonization in various human populations. We also evaluate the clinical significance of Pneumocystis colonization and its relationship to lung disease.

PMID 18171279
Paul E Sax, Lauren Komarow, Malcolm A Finkelman, Philip M Grant, Janet Andersen, Eileen Scully, William G Powderly, Andrew R Zolopa, AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5164 Team
Blood (1->3)-beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic test for HIV-related Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.
Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jul 15;53(2):197-202. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir335.
Abstract/Text UNLABELLED: (See the editorial commentary by Morris and Masur, on pages 203-204.)
BACKGROUND: Improved noninvasive diagnostic tests for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) are needed. We evaluated the test characteristics of plasma (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (β-glucan) for HIV-related PCP among a large group of patients presenting with diverse opportunistic infections (OIs).
METHODS: The study population included all 282 participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5164, a study of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in conjunction with initial therapy of acute OIs. Baseline plasma samples were assayed for β-glucan, with standard assay reference values defining ≥ 80 pg/mL as positive. Before this analysis, diagnosis of PCP was independently adjudicated by 2 study investigators after reviewing reports from study sites.
RESULTS: A total of 252 persons had a β-glucan result that could be analyzed, 173 (69%) of whom had received a diagnosis of PCP. Median β-glucan with PCP was 408 pg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 209-500 pg/mL), compared with 37 pg/mL (IQR, 31-235 pg/mL) without PCP (P < .001). The sensitivity of β-glucan dichotomized at 80 pg/mL for the diagnosis of PCP was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87%-96%), and the specificity was 65% (95% CI, 53%-75%); positive and negative predictive values were 85% (95% CI, 79%-90%) and 80% (95% CI, 68%-89%) respectively, based on the study prevalence of 69% of patients with PCP. Rates of abnormal lactate dehyrogenase levels did not differ significantly between those with and without PCP.
CONCLUSIONS: Blood (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan is strongly correlated with HIV-related PCP. In some clinical centers, this may be a more sensitive test than the induced sputum examination and could reduce the need for both bronchoscopy and empirical therapy of PCP.

PMID 21690628
Brian R Wood, Lauren Komarow, Andrew R Zolopa, Malcolm A Finkelman, William G Powderly, Paul E Sax
Test performance of blood beta-glucan for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with AIDS and respiratory symptoms.
AIDS. 2013 Mar 27;27(6):967-72. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835cb646.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the test characteristics of plasma beta-glucan for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in AIDS patients with respiratory symptoms.
DESIGN: Analysis of baseline blood samples in a randomized strategy study of patients with acute opportunistic infections, limited to participants with respiratory symptoms.
METHODS: Participants in the 282-person ACTG A5164 trial had baseline plasma samples assayed for beta-glucan testing. As part of A5164 trial, two study investigators independently adjudicated the diagnosis of PCP. Respiratory symptoms were identified by investigators from a list of all signs and symptoms with an onset or resolution in the 21 days prior to or 14 days following study entry. Beta-glucan was defined as positive if at least 80 pg/ml and negative if less than 80 pg/ml.
RESULTS: Of 252 study participants with a beta-glucan result, 159 had at least one respiratory symptom, 139 of whom had a diagnosis of PCP. The sensitivity of beta-glucan for PCP in participants with respiratory symptoms was 92.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87.2-96.5], and specificity 75.0% (95% CI 50.9-91.3). Among 134 individuals with positive beta-glucan and respiratory symptoms, 129 had PCP, for a positive predictive value of 96.3% (95% CI 91.5-98.8). Fifteen of 25 patients with a normal beta-glucan did not have PCP, for a negative predictive value of 60% (95% CI 38.7-78.9).
CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma beta-glucan has a high predictive value for diagnosis of PCP in AIDS patients with respiratory symptoms. We propose an algorithm for the use of beta-glucan as a diagnostic tool on the basis of the pretest probability of PCP in such patients.

PMID 23698062
Tamayo Watanabe, Akira Yasuoka, Junko Tanuma, Hirohisa Yazaki, Haruhito Honda, Kunihisa Tsukada, Miwako Honda, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Katsuji Teruya, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
Serum (1-->3) beta-D-glucan as a noninvasive adjunct marker for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with AIDS.
Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 1;49(7):1128-31. doi: 10.1086/605579.
Abstract/Text High serum (1-->3) beta-D-glucan levels are described in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We evaluated the diagnostic value of beta-D-glucan in 111 patients with AIDS who had PCP and confirmed its usefulness. However, it does not correlate with disease severity and is not suitable for monitoring response to treatment.

PMID 19725788
V L Ng, D M Yajko, W K Hadley
Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997 Jul;10(3):401-18.
Abstract/Text Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis is an exceedingly rare complication of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Prior to the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic, only 16 cases of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in individuals who were immunocompromised by a variety of underlying diseases had been reported. Since the beginning of the HIV-1 and related PCP epidemic, at least 90 cases of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis have been reported. This review briefly presents a history of the discovery of P. carinii and its recognition as a human pathogen, the controversy regarding its taxonomy, and the epidemiology of this organism. A more detailed analysis of the incidence of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in HIV-1-infected individuals and its occurrence despite widespread prophylaxis for PCP with either aerosolized pentamidine or systemic dapsone-trimethoprim is presented. The clinical features of published cases of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in non-HIV-1-infected individuals are summarized and contrasted with those in HIV-1 infected individuals. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis is discussed, and because clinical microbiologists and pathologists are the key individuals in establishing the diagnosis, the characteristic microscopic morphology of P. carinii as its appears when stained with a variety of stains is presented and reviewed. The review concludes with a brief discussion of treatments for extrapulmonary pneumocystosis.

PMID 9227859
M W Fei, E J Kim, C A Sant, L G Jarlsberg, J L Davis, A Swartzman, L Huang
Predicting mortality from HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia at illness presentation: an observational cohort study.
Thorax. 2009 Dec;64(12):1070-6. doi: 10.1136/thx.2009.117846. Epub 2009 Oct 12.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Although the use of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic declines in AIDS-associated mortality, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading cause of death in HIV-infected patients.
OBJECTIVES: To measure mortality, identify predictors of mortality at time of illness presentation and derive a PCP mortality prediction rule that stratifies patients by risk for mortality.
METHODS: An observational cohort study with case note review of all HIV-infected persons with a laboratory diagnosis of PCP at San Francisco General Hospital from 1997 to 2006.
RESULTS: 451 patients were diagnosed with PCP on 524 occasions. In-hospital mortality was 10.3%. Multivariate analysis identified five significant predictors of mortality: age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) per 10-year increase, 1.69; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.65; p = 0.02); recent injection drug use (AOR 2.86; 95% CI 1.28 to 6.42; p = 0.01); total bilirubin >0.6 mg/dl (AOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.19 to 5.62; p = 0.02); serum albumin <3 g/dl (AOR 3.63; 95% CI 1.72-7.66; p = 0.001); and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient >or=50 mm Hg (AOR 3.02; 95% CI 1.41 to 6.47; p = 0.004). Using these five predictors, a six-point PCP mortality prediction rule was derived that stratifies patients according to increasing risk of mortality: score 0-1, 4%; score 2-3, 12%; score 4-5, 48%.
CONCLUSIONS: The PCP mortality prediction rule stratifies patients by mortality risk at the time of illness presentation and should be validated as a clinical tool.

PMID 19825785
M S Dworkin, D L Hanson, T R Navin
Survival of patients with AIDS, after diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, in the United States.
J Infect Dis. 2001 May 1;183(9):1409-12. doi: 10.1086/319866. Epub 2001 Apr 10.
Abstract/Text To examine survival after diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and factors associated with early death (during the month of or the month after diagnosis of PCP), data were analyzed from the Adult and Adolescent Spectrum HIV Disease project. Among 4412 patients with 5222 episodes of PCP during follow-up (1992-1998), survival at >1 month after diagnosis was 82%, and survival at > or =12 months after diagnosis was 47%; 12-month survival increased from 40% in 1992-1993 to 63% in 1996-1998. By multiple logistic regression analysis, early death was associated with history of PCP (odds ratio [OR], 1.4), age 45-59 years (OR, 1.9) or > or =60 years (OR, 3.7), and CD4 cell count of 0-24 cells/microL (< or =5 months before PCP; OR, 1.8) or 25-49 cells/microL (OR, 1.4) (P<.05). Concurrent prescription of combination antiretroviral therapy (OR, 0.2) and other antiretroviral therapy (OR, 0.4) was associated with surviving the early period. This study shows improved survival after diagnosis of PCP in recent years, despite emergence of antibiotic-resistant mutant P. carinii strains.

PMID 11294675
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical spectrum of immunosuppressive conditions and systemic corticosteroid therapy associated with the development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a consecutive series of patients without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive series of 116 patients without AIDS who were assessed at Mayo Medical Center for a first episode of P. carinii pneumonia between 1985 and 1991.
METHODS: Medical records were examined to determine underlying immunosuppressive disorders, premorbid corticosteroid dosage and duration of therapy, associated infections, and subsequent respiratory failure and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: Conditions associated with a first episode of P. carinii pneumonia were hematologic malignant disorders (30.2%), organ transplantation (25.0%), inflammatory disorders (22.4%), solid tumors (12.9%), and miscellaneous conditions (9.5%). Regardless of the associated underlying disease, corticosteroids had been administered systemically in 105 patients (90.5%) within 1 month before the diagnosis of P. carinii pneumonia. The median daily corticosteroid dose was equivalent to 30 mg of prednisone; however, 25% of patients had received as little as 16 mg of prednisone daily. The median duration of corticosteroid therapy was 12 weeks before the development of pneumonia; however, P. carinii pneumonia developed after 8 weeks or less of corticosteroid therapy in 25% of these patients. Respiratory failure occurred in 43%, and in-hospital mortality was 34% for patients with P. carinii pneumonia in conditions other than AIDS.
CONCLUSION: Although these results do not suggest that premorbid administration of corticosteroids is the only factor that contributes to the development of P. carinii pneumonia in these patients, they show that, in this large consecutive series, systemic corticosteroid therapy, even in moderate doses, was administered to most patients during the month preceding the onset of P. carinii pneumonia. Consideration should be given to instituting P. carinii prophylaxis (when not contra-indicated) in patients for whom prolonged systemic corticosteroid therapy is prescribed.

PMID 8538233
A M Morris, L Huang, P Bacchetti, J Turner, P C Hopewell, J M Wallace, P A Kvale, M J Rosen, J Glassroth, L B Reichman, J D Stansell
Permanent declines in pulmonary function following pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. The Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Aug;162(2 Pt 1):612-6. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.162.2.9912058.
Abstract/Text Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated respiratory infections, most notably Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), but also bacterial pneumonia (BP), result in reductions in lung function that have been studied mainly during the course of acute infection. Whether HIV-associated pneumonias also cause permanent changes in pulmonary function is unknown. In this study we investigated the long-term effects of PCP and BP on pulmonary function in a cohort of HIV-infected persons. One thousand, one hundred forty-nine HIV-infected persons were followed in a prospective, observational cohort study at six centers in the United States. Study participants had pulmonary function testing performed at regular preset intervals. PCP and BP diagnoses were verified with defined criteria. Longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to model pulmonary function in terms of demographic data and occurrence of PCP or BP. We found that PCP or BP was associated with permanent decreases in FEV(1), FVC, FEV(1)/FVC, and the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Neither infection resulted in statistically significant changes in TLC. We conclude that PCP and BP result in expiratory airflow reductions that persist after the acute infection resolves. The clinical implications of these changes are unknown, but they may contribute to prolonged respiratory complaints in HIV-infected patients who have had pneumonia.

PMID 10934095
Charles F Thomas, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis pneumonia.
N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 10;350(24):2487-98. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra032588.
Abstract/Text
PMID 15190141
R A Smego, S Nagar, B Maloba, M Popara
A meta-analysis of salvage therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jun 25;161(12):1529-33.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative efficacies of alternative antipneumocystis agents in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia unresponsive to primary drug treatment with a combination product of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole or parenteral pentamidine.
METHODS: Meta-analysis of 27 published clinical drug trials, case series, and case reports involving P carinii pneumonia. Data extracted included underlying disease, primary antipneumocystis treatment, days of failed primary treatment, salvage regimen, use of systemic corticosteroids and antiretroviral drugs, and clinical outcome.
RESULTS: In 497 patients with microbiologically confirmed P carinii pneumonia (456 with HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), initial antipneumocystis treatment failed and they therefore required alternative drug therapy. Failed regimens included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 patients), intravenous pentamidine (63 patients), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or pentamidine (258 patients), aerosolized pentamidine (6 patients), atovaquone (3 patients), dapsone (3 patients), a combination product of trimethoprim and dapsone (2 patients), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole followed by a combination of clindamycin and primaquine phosphate (2 patients). Efficacies of salvage regimens were as follows: clindamycin-primaquine (42 to 44 [88%-92%] of 48 patients; P<10(-8)), atovaquone (4 [80%] of 5), eflornithine hydrochloride (40 [57%] of 70; P<.01), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (27 [53%] of 51; P<.08), pentamidine (64 [39%] of 164), and trimetrexate (47 [30%] of 159).
CONCLUSION: The combination of clindamycin plus primaquine appears to be the most effective alternative treatment for patients with P carinii pneumonia who are unresponsive to conventional antipneumocystis agents.

PMID 11427101
M Briel, H C Bucher, R Boscacci, H Furrer
Adjunctive corticosteroids for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with HIV-infection.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;(3):CD006150. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006150. Epub 2006 Jul 19.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) remains the most common opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among patients with HIV infection and PCP the mortality rate is 10 to 20% during the initial infection and increases substantially with the need for mechanical ventilation. It was suggested that in these patients corticosteroids adjunctive to standard treatment for PCP could prevent the need for mechanical ventilation and decrease mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of adjunctive corticosteroids on overall mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation in HIV-infected patients with PCP and substantial hypoxemia (arterial oxygen partial pressure <70 mmHg or alveolar-arterial gradient >35 mmHg on room air).
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Medline (January 1980-December 2004), EMBASE (January 1985-December 2004) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 4, 2004) without language restrictions to identify randomised controlled trials that compared adjunctive corticosteroids to control in HIV-infected patients with PCP. We further reviewed the reference lists from previously published overviews, we searched UptoDate version 2005 and Clinical Evidence Concise (Issue 12, 2004), contacted experts of the field, and searched reference lists of identified publications for citations of additional relevant articles.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Trials were considered eligible for this review if they compared corticosteroids to placebo or usual care in HIV-infected patients with PCP in addition to baseline treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pentamidine or dapsone-trimethoprim, used random allocation, and reported mortality data. We excluded trials in patients with no or mild hypoxemia (arterial oxygen partial pressure >70 mmHg or an alveolar-arterial gradient <35 mmHg on room air) and trials with a follow-up of less than 30 days.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two teams of reviewers independently evaluated the methodology and extracted data from each primary study. We pooled treatment effects across studies and calculated a weighted average risk ratio of overall mortality in the treatment and control groups by using a random effects model.
MAIN RESULTS: Six studies were included in the review and meta-analysis. Risk ratios for overall mortality for adjunctive corticosteroids were 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.98) at 1 month and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50-0.94) at 3-4 months of follow-up. To prevent 1 death, numbers needed to treat are 9 patients in a setting without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) available, and 23 patients with HAART available. Only the 3 largest trials provided data on the need for mechanical ventilation with a risk ratio of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.20-0.73) in favour of adjunctive corticosteroids.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The number and size of trials investigating adjunctive corticosteroids for HIV-infected patients with PCP is small, but evidence from this review suggests a beneficial effect for patients with substantial hypoxemia.

PMID 16856118
Jonathan E Kaplan, Constance Benson, King H Holmes, John T Brooks, Alice Pau, Henry Masur, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institutes of Health, HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009 Apr 10;58(RR-4):1-207; quiz CE1-4.
Abstract/Text This report updates and combines earlier versions of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected adults (i.e., persons aged >/=18 years) and adolescents (i.e., persons aged 13--17 years), last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. It has been prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). The guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care providers, HIV-infected patients, and policy makers in the United States. These guidelines address several OIs that occur in the United States and five OIs that might be acquired during international travel. Topic areas covered for each OI include epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; and special considerations during pregnancy. These guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists from the United States government and academic institutions. For each OI, a small group of specialists with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the guidelines were last published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting held at NIH in June 2007. After these presentations and discussion, the revised guidelines were further reviewed by the co-editors; by the Office of AIDS Research, NIH; by specialists at CDC; and by HIVMA of IDSA before final approval and publication. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for the prevention and treatment of OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists; 2) information regarding the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes; 3) information regarding the use of interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection; 4) updated information concerning drug interactions that affect the use of rifamycin drugs for prevention and treatment of TB; 5) the addition of a section on hepatitis B virus infection; and 6) the addition of malaria to the list of OIs that might be acquired during international travel. This report includes eleven tables pertinent to the prevention and treatment of OIs, a figure that pertains to the diagnois of tuberculosis, a figure that describes immunization recommendations, and an appendix that summarizes recommendations for prevention of exposure to opportunistic pathogens.

PMID 19357635
S A Bozzette, F R Sattler, J Chiu, A W Wu, D Gluckstein, C Kemper, A Bartok, J Niosi, I Abramson, J Coffman
A controlled trial of early adjunctive treatment with corticosteroids for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. California Collaborative Treatment Group.
N Engl J Med. 1990 Nov 22;323(21):1451-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199011223232104.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia remains a common cause of serious morbidity and mortality in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The extensive lung injury that accompanies pneumocystis-associated respiratory failure and the reports of clinical benefit from the use of adjunctive corticosteroids provided the rationale for this prospective multicenter trial.
METHODS: A total of 333 patients with AIDS and pneumocystis pneumonia received standard treatment and were randomly assigned to receive either corticosteroids (beginning with the equivalent of 40 mg of prednisone twice daily) or no additional therapy. The primary end points in this unblinded trial were the occurrence of respiratory failure (hypoxemia ratio [partial pressure of arterial oxygen divided by fraction of inspired oxygen] less than 75, intubation, or death), death, and dose-limiting toxicity of the initial standard therapy.
RESULTS: Of the patients with confirmed or presumed pneumocystis pneumonia (n = 225 and n = 26, respectively), those assigned to treatment with corticosteroids had a lower cumulative risk at 31 days of respiratory failure (0.14 vs. 0.30, P = 0.004) and of death (0.11 vs. 0.23, P = 0.009), as well as a lower risk of death within 84 days (0.16 vs. 0.26, P = 0.026). The frequency of dose-limiting toxicity of the standard therapy was similar in the two treatment groups. Intention-to-treat analyses of the entire cohort confirmed these findings. Clinical benefit could not be demonstrated, however, for patients with mild disease (hypoxemia ratio, greater than 350), equivalent to a partial pressure of oxygen greater than 75 torr on room air. The patients assigned to corticosteroid treatment had an excess of localized herpetic lesions (26 percent vs. 15 percent, P = 0.04) but not of other infections or of neoplasms.
CONCLUSIONS: Early adjunctive treatment with corticosteroids reduces the risks of respiratory failure and death in patients with AIDS and moderate-to-severe pneumocystis pneumonia. Because the adverse effects are few, corticosteroids should be included as part of the initial treatment for persons with AIDS who have moderate-to-severe pneumocystis pneumonia.

PMID 2233917
J C Lopez Bernaldo de Quiros, J M Miro, J M Peña, D Podzamczer, J C Alberdi, E Martínez, J Cosin, X Claramonte, J Gonzalez, P Domingo, J L Casado, E Ribera, Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 04/98
A randomized trial of the discontinuation of primary and secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 04/98.
N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 18;344(3):159-67. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200101183440301.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is indicated in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have less than 200 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter and in those with a history of P. carinii pneumonia. However, it is not clear whether prophylaxis can be safely discontinued after CD4 cell counts increase in response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of the discontinuation of primary or secondary prophylaxis against P. carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients with a sustained response to antiviral therapy, defined by a CD4 cell count of 200 or more per cubic millimeter and plasma HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level of less than 5000 copies per milliliter for at least three months. Prophylactic treatment was restarted if the CD4 cell count declined to less than 200 per cubic millimeter.
RESULTS: The 474 patients receiving primary prophylaxis had a median CD4 cell count at entry of 342 per cubic millimeter, and 38 percent had detectable HIV-1 RNA. After a median follow-up period of 20 months (758 person-years), there had been no episodes of P. carinii pneumonia in the 240 patients who discontinued prophylaxis (95 percent confidence interval, 0 to 0.85 episode per 100 person-years). For the 113 patients receiving secondary prophylaxis, the median CD4 cell count at entry was 355 per cubic millimeter, and 24 percent had detectable HIV-1 RNA. After a median follow-up period of 12 months (123 person-years), there had been no episodes of P. carinii pneumonia in the 60 patients who discontinued prophylaxis (95 percent confidence interval, 0 to 4.5 episodes per 100 person-years).
CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, primary and secondary prophylaxis against P. carinii pneumonia can be safely discontinued after the CD4 cell count has increased to 200 or more per cubic millimeter for more than three months.

PMID 11172138
M M Schneider, A I Hoepelman, J K Eeftinck Schattenkerk, T L Nielsen, Y van der Graaf, J P Frissen, I M van der Ende, A F Kolsters, J C Borleffs
A controlled trial of aerosolized pentamidine or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Dutch AIDS Treatment Group.
N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 24;327(26):1836-41. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199212243272603.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is recommended for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection if their CD4 cell counts are below 200 per cubic millimeter (0.2 x 10(9) per liter). Either aerosolized pentamidine or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis, but the relative efficacy and toxicity of these agents are unknown.
METHODS: We conducted a multicenter trial involving 215 HIV-infected patients with no history of PCP but with CD4 cell counts below 200 per cubic millimeter. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: aerosolized pentamidine once a month, 480 mg of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole once a day (80 mg of trimethoprim and 400 mg of sulfamethoxazole), or 960 mg of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole once a day (160 mg and 800 mg, respectively). The cumulative incidence of PCP was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 264 days, 6 of the 71 patients in the pentamidine group had a confirmed first episode of PCP (11 percent), whereas none of the 142 patients in the two trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole groups had PCP (P = 0.002). However, adverse events that required discontinuation of the medication were much more frequent in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole groups (17 and 18 patients) than in the pentamidine group (2 patients). The adverse reactions occurred significantly sooner in the group given 960 mg of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than in the group given 480 mg (mean time, 16 vs. 57 days; P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: For patients with HIV infection, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole taken once a day is more effective as primary prophylaxis against PCP than aerosolized pentamidine administered once a month, although adverse drug reactions are more frequent with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

PMID 1360145
C Chan, J Montaner, E A Lefebvre, G Morey, M Dohn, R A McIvor, J Scott, R Marina, P Caldwell
Atovaquone suspension compared with aerosolized pentamidine for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects intolerant of trimethoprim or sulfonamides.
J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):369-76. doi: 10.1086/314893.
Abstract/Text Atovaquone suspensions (750 mg and 1500 mg once a day) were compared with aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg once a month) for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were intolerant to trimethoprim or sulfonamides (or both). Median time using the assigned therapy was 6.6 months, and the median follow-up was 11.3 months. Intent-to-treat analyses (n=549) showed no statistically significant differences among subjects with regard to the incidence of PCP (26%, 22%, and 17%, respectively) or mortality (20%, 13%, and 18%, respectively). The incidence of treatment-limiting adverse events with atovaquone was significantly higher (P<.01). There was, however, no significant difference in the time using therapy. Incidences of PCP and death were higher in subjects receiving 750 mg of atovaquone than in subjects receiving 1500 mg. Atovaquone suspension at 1500 mg once a day has an efficacy similar to that of aerosolized pentamidine for prevention of PCP in HIV-infected subjects and is a safe, effective alternative in those who are intolerant to trimethoprim or sulfonamides.

PMID 10395851
Opportunistic Infections Project Team of the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE), Amanda Mocroft, Peter Reiss, Ole Kirk, Cristina Mussini, Enrico Girardi, Philippe Morlat, Christoph Stephan, Stephane De Wit, Katja Doerholt, Jade Ghosn, Heiner C Bucher, Jens D Lundgren, Genevieve Chene, Jose M Miro, Hansjakob Furrer
Is it safe to discontinue primary Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis in patients with virologically suppressed HIV infection and a CD4 cell count <200 cells/microL?
Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Sep 1;51(5):611-9. doi: 10.1086/655761.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest that primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) can be safely stopped in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who are receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and who have a CD4 cell count >200 cells/microL. There are few data regarding the incidence of PcP or safety of stopping prophylaxis in virologically suppressed patients with CD4 cell counts of 101-200 cells/microL.
METHODS: The Opportunistic Infections Project Team of the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) included data from 23,412 patients from 12 European cohorts who started taking cART after 1997. Poisson regression was used to model incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of primary PcP.
RESULTS: There were 253 PcP cases during 107,016 person-years of follow-up (PYFU). Prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of PcP among patients with current CD4 cell counts 100 cells/microL (adjusted IRR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.60) but not significantly among those with current CD4 cell counts of 101-200 cells/microL (adjusted IRR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.34-1.17). The incidence of PcP among patients who had a current CD4 cell count of 100-200 cells/microL, who had a viral load <400 copies/mL, and who were receiving prophylaxis was 2.1 cases per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.8-4.3 cases per 1000 PYFU; 7 events occurred during 3363 PYFU), whereas 1.2 cases per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.2-4.5 cases per 1000 PYFU; 2 events occurred during 1614 PYFU) occurred among persons who were not receiving prophylaxis (adjusted IRR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.33-8.15). Among patients who discontinued PcP prophylaxis after starting cART, the incidence of primary PcP was 0 cases per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.0-2.7 cases per 1000 PYFU; 0 events occurred during 1363 PYFU) for patients who had a current CD4 cell count of 101-200 cells/microL and who were receiving cART.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of primary PcP among patients who had virologically suppressed HIV infection, were receiving cART, and who had CD4 cell counts >100 cells/microL was low irrespective of prophylaxis use. Discontinuation of prophylaxis may be safe in patients with CD4 counts of 101-200 cells/microL and suppressed viral load.

PMID 20645862
Gianni E D'Egidio, Stephen Kravcik, Curtis L Cooper, D William Cameron, Dean A Fergusson, Jonathan B Angel
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis is not required with a CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/microl when viral replication is suppressed.
AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1711-5. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32826fb6fc.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety of discontinuing Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, in patients on effective antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ T-cell counts that have plateaued at < 200 cells/microl.
METHODS: We prospectively evaluated a cohort of HIV infected patients at a multidisciplinary HIV clinic with sustained HIV RNA levels < 50 copies/ml and CD4+ T-cell counts that have plateaued at < 200 cells/microl and who have discontinued PCP prophylaxis.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients fulfilled the above criteria. Eleven had been taking daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, seven were receiving monthly aerosolized pentamidine, and one patient never received any prophylaxis. The median CD4+ T-cell count at the time of discontinuation and at the most recent determination were 120 (range, 34-184) and 138 (range, 6-201) cells/microl, respectively. To date, patients have been off PCP prophylaxis for a mean of 13.7 +/- 10.6 months and a median of 9.0 (range 3-39) months for a total of 261 patient-months. To date, no patient has developed PCP. This is significantly different from the risk of developing PCP with a CD4+ T-cell count of < 200 cells/microl in untreated HIV infection (rate difference 9.2%; 95% confidence interval, 5.7 to 12.8%; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: With sustained suppression of viral replication, PCP prophylaxis may not be necessary, regardless of CD4+ T-cell count. This illustrates a degree of immune recovery that occurs with virologic suppression that is not reflected in absolute CD4+ T-cell count or percentage and suggests that guidelines for P. jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis may need to be re-evaluated.

PMID 17690568
A M Morris, M Swanson, H Ha, L Huang
Geographic distribution of human immunodeficiency virus-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in San Francisco.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Nov;162(5):1622-6. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.162.5.2002065.
Abstract/Text The epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and its geographic distribution are incompletely understood. We examined the influence of geographic location as a risk factor for PCP through a retrospective case-control study of HIV-infected persons evaluated for PCP at San Francisco General Hospital. Subjects had microscopically confirmed PCP diagnosed between January 1996 and June 1999. Control subjects had a presentation suggestive of PCP, but had bronchoalveolar lavage examination that did not reveal P. carinii. Medical chart review was performed to obtain demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects as well as their addresses at time of PCP evaluation. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify variables associated with PCP. Lack of P. carinii prophylaxis and a CD4 cell count
PMID 11069786
Firas Choukri, Jean Menotti, Claudine Sarfati, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Gilles Nevez, Yves J F Garin, Francis Derouin, Anne Totet
Quantification and spread of Pneumocystis jirovecii in the surrounding air of patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 1;51(3):259-65. doi: 10.1086/653933.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis has been demonstrated in animal models and is highly probable in humans. However, information concerning burdens of Pneumocystis jirovecii (human-derived Pneumocystis) in exhaled air from infected patients is lacking. Our objective is to evaluate P. jirovecii air diffusion in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia.
METHODS: Patients admitted with Pneumocystis pneumonia were prospectively enrolled from 9 January 2008 to 21 July 2009. Air samples (1.5 m(3)) were collected on liquid medium with a commercial sampler at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-m distances from patients' heads. Air control samples were collected away from Pneumocystis pneumonia patient wards and outdoors. Samples were examined for P. jirovecii detection and quantification using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene.
RESULTS: Forty patients were diagnosed as having Pneumocystis pneumonia. Air sampling was performed in the environment for 19 of them. At a 1-m distance from patients' heads, P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 15 (79.8%) of 19 patients, with fungal burdens ranging from 7.5 X 10³ to 4.5 X 10⁶ gene copies/m(3). These levels decreased with distance from the patients (P < .002). Nevertheless, 4 (33.3%) of the 12 samples taken at 8 m, in the corridor adjacent to their room, were still positive. Forty control samples were collected and remained negative.
CONCLUSION: This study provides the first quantitative data on the spread of P. jirovecii in exhaled air from infected patients. It sustains the risk of P. jirovecii direct transmission in close contact with patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia and leads the way for initiating a quantitative risk assessment for airborne transmission of P. jirovecii.

PMID 20572759
Laurence Huang, Adithya Cattamanchi, J Lucian Davis, Saskia den Boon, Joseph Kovacs, Steven Meshnick, Robert F Miller, Peter D Walzer, William Worodria, Henry Masur, International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias (IHOP) Study, Lung HIV Study
HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011 Jun;8(3):294-300. doi: 10.1513/pats.201009-062WR.
Abstract/Text During the past 30 years, major advances have been made in our understanding of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), but significant gaps remain. Pneumocystis is classified as a fungus and is host-species specific, but an understanding of its reservoir, mode of transmission, and pathogenesis is incomplete. PCP remains a frequent AIDS-defining diagnosis and is a frequent opportunistic pneumonia in the United States and in Europe, but comparable epidemiologic data from other areas of the world that are burdened with HIV/AIDS are limited. Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is the gold standard procedure to diagnose PCP, but noninvasive diagnostic tests and biomarkers show promise that must be validated. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended first-line treatment and prophylaxis regimen, but putative trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole drug resistance is an emerging concern. The International HIV-associated Opportunistic Pneumonias (IHOP) study was established to address these knowledge gaps. This review describes recent advances in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of HIV-associated PCP and ongoing areas of clinical and translational research that are part of the IHOP study and the Longitudinal Studies of HIV-associated Lung Infections and Complications (Lung HIV).

PMID 21653531
Bryan J Krajicek, Andrew H Limper, Charles F Thomas
Advances in the biology, pathogenesis and identification of Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2008 May;14(3):228-34. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e3282f94abc.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumocystis pneumonia remains the most prevalent opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. It is also a common devastating infection in patients with other causes of altered immunity. Though scientific study of this fungal pathogen is challenging given the inability to propagate the organism outside of the host lung, studies utilizing advanced molecular techniques and genomic analysis have broadened our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Pneumocystis and will be described herein.
RECENT FINDINGS: Results from advanced molecular techniques suggest that Pneumocystis organisms not only cause infection in patients with impaired immunity but also colonize mammals with normal immune systems. Advanced technology has also identified acquired Pneumocystis genetic mutations that confer resistance to currently utilized therapeutics. Though not yet widely utilized in clinical medicine, advanced polymerase chain reaction techniques improve the diagnostic yield of respiratory specimen analysis. Preliminary results from serum beta-glucan testing suggest that a noninvasive marker of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection and response to therapy may be on the horizon.
SUMMARY: Recent scientific advances suggest opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment surveillance of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Further investigations are necessary to define the optimal characteristics of these laboratory tests and to develop therapeutics directed at novel Pneumocystis genomic targets.

PMID 18427246

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