今日の臨床サポート

高血圧緊急症

著者: 田辺晶代 国立国際医療研究センター病院 糖尿病内分泌代謝科

監修: 今井靖 自治医科大学 薬理学講座臨床薬理学部門・内科学講座循環器内科学部門

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2021/03/31
参考ガイドライン:
  1. 日本高血圧学会:高血圧治療ガイドライン2019
  1. 日本脳卒中学会:脳卒中治療ガイドライン2015(追補2019)
患者向け説明資料

概要・推奨   

  1. 180/120mmHg以上の著しい高血圧では、予後の向上のために、早急に進行性の心血管系障害の有無を判断し、治療方針を確定すべきである(推奨度1)
  1. 高血圧緊急症の症例を診察する際には、臓器障害を示唆する所見(胸痛、背部痛、呼吸困難、神経所見、けいれん、意識状態)の有無に注目する(推奨度1)
  1. 血圧は両上肢で測定し左右差を確認する。眼底所見は高血圧緊急症の診断に有用であるため、確認すべきである(推奨度2)
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薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
田辺晶代 : 特に申告事項無し[2021年]
監修:今井靖 : 講演料(第一三共株式会社)[2021年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. 定期レビューを行った(変更なし)。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報(疫学・病態)  
  1. 高血圧緊急症とは、著しい血圧上昇だけではなく、高血圧により、脳、腎、心臓などの心血管系臓器に急性障害が生じ進行している病態である[1]
  1. 放置すれば不可逆的な臓器障害のため致命的であることから、ただちに降圧治療が必要である。
  1. 高血圧緊急症には、高血圧性脳症、脳血管障害、肺水腫を伴う急性心不全・急性冠症候群、子癇、高血圧を伴う解離性大動脈瘤、悪性高血圧、褐色細胞腫による高血圧クリーゼ、高血圧性網膜症などの疾患や病態が含まれる。
  1. 原則として、集中治療室あるいはそれに準ずる設備のある病床に入院して治療を行う。
  1. 使用する降圧薬は、効果発現および中止後の効果消失が速やかな経静脈薬剤を用いる。
  1. 急速で過度な降圧は避ける(臓器灌流圧低下による脳虚血、心筋梗塞、腎障害などの虚血性臓器障害を発症・進行させる危険がある)。
問診・診察のポイント  
  1. 症状や血圧値から高血圧緊急症を疑った場合は、まず高血圧、腎疾患、脳血管疾患、虚血性心疾患の既往や治療歴、内服薬、妊娠の有無を確認する。

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文献 

著者: Daniel Grassi, Martin O'Flaherty, Marcelo Pellizzari, Mario Bendersky, Pablo Rodriguez, Domingo Turri, Pedro Forcada, Keith C Ferdinand, Carol Kotliar, Group of Investigators of the REHASE Program
雑誌名: J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Sep;10(9):662-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7176.2008.00001.x.
Abstract/Text To study the efficacy of a treatment strategy for the management of hypertensive urgencies, the authors evaluated 549 patients admitted to the emergency department. They were first assigned to a 30-minute rest period, then a follow-up blood pressure measurement was carried out. Patients who did not respond to rest were randomly assigned to receive an oral dose of an antihypertensive drug with different mechanisms of action and pharmacodynamic properties (perindopril, amlodipine, or labetalol), and blood pressure was reassessed at 60- and 120-minute intervals. A satisfactory blood pressure response to rest (defined as postintervention systolic blood pressure < 180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure < 110 mm Hg, with at least a 20 mm Hg reduction in basal systolic blood pressure and/or a 10-mm Hg reduction in basal diastolic blood pressure) was observed in 31.9% of population. Among nonresponders, 79.1% had a satisfactory blood pressure response to the antihypertensive drug treatment in a 2-hour average follow-up period. No major adverse events were observed. This treatment strategy, based on standardized rest as an initial step and different antihypertensive drugs, can be effective and safe for the management of patients with hypertensive urgencies.

PMID 18844760  J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Sep;10(9):662-7. doi・・・
著者: C J Vaughan, N Delanty
雑誌名: Lancet. 2000 Jul 29;356(9227):411-7. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02539-3.
Abstract/Text A hypertensive emergency is a situation in which uncontrolled hypertension is associated with acute end-organ damage. Most patients presenting with hypertensive emergency have chronic hypertension, although the disorder can present in previously normotensive individuals, particularly when associated with pre-eclampsia or acute glomerulonephritis. The pathophysiological mechanisms causing acute hypertensive endothelial failure are complex and incompletely understood but probably involve disturbances of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, loss of endogenous vasodilator mechanisms, upregulation of proinflammatory mediators including vascular cell adhesion molecules, and release of local vasoconstrictors such as endothelin 1. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated a characteristic hypertensive posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome predominantly causing oedema of the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes; this syndrome is potentially reversible with appropriate prompt treatment. Generally, the therapeutic approach is dictated by the particular presentation and end-organ complications. Parenteral therapy is generally preferred, and strategies include use of sodium nitroprusside, beta-blockers, labetelol, or calcium-channel antagonists, magnesium for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; and short-term parenteral anticonvulsants for seizures associated with encephalopathy. Novel therapies include the peripheral dopamine-receptor agonist, fenoldapam, and may include endothelin-1 antagonists.

PMID 10972386  Lancet. 2000 Jul 29;356(9227):411-7. doi: 10.1016/S0140・・・
著者: Aram V Chobanian, George L Bakris, Henry R Black, William C Cushman, Lee A Green, Joseph L Izzo, Daniel W Jones, Barry J Materson, Suzanne Oparil, Jackson T Wright, Edward J Roccella, Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee
雑誌名: Hypertension. 2003 Dec;42(6):1206-52. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.c2. Epub 2003 Dec 1.
Abstract/Text The National High Blood Pressure Education Program presents the complete Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Like its predecessors, the purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention and management of hypertension. The key messages of this report are these: in those older than age 50, systolic blood pressure (BP) of greater than 140 mm Hg is a more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, CVD risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; those who are normotensive at 55 years of age will have a 90% lifetime risk of developing hypertension; prehypertensive individuals (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg) require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent the progressive rise in blood pressure and CVD; for uncomplicated hypertension, thiazide diuretic should be used in drug treatment for most, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes; this report delineates specific high-risk conditions that are compelling indications for the use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); two or more antihypertensive medications will be required to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg) for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease; for patients whose BP is more than 20 mm Hg above the systolic BP goal or more than 10 mm Hg above the diastolic BP goal, initiation of therapy using two agents, one of which usually will be a thiazide diuretic, should be considered; regardless of therapy or care, hypertension will be controlled only if patients are motivated to stay on their treatment plan. Positive experiences, trust in the clinician, and empathy improve patient motivation and satisfaction. This report serves as a guide, and the committee continues to recognize that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.

PMID 14656957  Hypertension. 2003 Dec;42(6):1206-52. doi: 10.1161/01.H・・・
著者: W Frank Peacock, Daniel E Hilleman, Phillip D Levy, Denise H Rhoney, Joseph Varon
雑誌名: Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Jul;30(6):981-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2011.06.040. Epub 2011 Sep 9.
Abstract/Text Hypertensive emergencies are acute elevations in blood pressure (BP) that occur in the presence of progressive end-organ damage. Hypertensive urgencies, defined as elevated BP without acute end-organ damage, can often be treated with oral agents, whereas hypertensive emergencies are best treated with intravenous titratable agents. However, a lack of head-to-head studies has made it difficult to establish which intravenous drug is most effective in treating hypertensive crises. This systematic review presents a synthesis of published studies that compare the antihypertensive agents nicardipine and labetalol in patients experiencing acute hypertensive crises. A MEDLINE search was conducted using the term "labetalol AND nicardipine AND hypertension." Conference abstracts were searched manually. Ultimately, 10 studies were included, encompassing patients with hypertensive crises across an array of indications and practice environments (stroke, the emergency department, critical care, surgery, pediatrics, and pregnancy). The results of this systematic review show comparable efficacy and safety for nicardipine and labetalol, although nicardipine appears to provide more predictable and consistent BP control than labetalol.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID 21908132  Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Jul;30(6):981-93. doi: 10.1016/j.a・・・
著者: Paulino Vigil-De Gracia, Martin Lasso, Esteban Ruiz, Juan Carlos Vega-Malek, Flor Tem de Mena, Juan Carlos López, or the HYLA treatment study
雑誌名: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;128(1-2):157-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.02.015. Epub 2006 Apr 18.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous labetalol and intravenous hydralazine for acutely lowering blood pressure in pregnancy.
STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred women with severe hypertension in pregnancy were randomized to receive hydralazine (5 mg as a slow bolus dose given intravenously, and repeated every 20 min up to a maximum of five doses) or labetalol (20-mg intravenous bolus dose followed by 40 mg if not effective within 20 min, followed by 80 mg every 20 min up to a maximum dose of 300 mg). The primary end point was successful lowering of blood pressure and maternal hypotension.
RESULTS: Women were similar with respect to characteristics at randomization. No significant differences were observed for maternal hypotension or persistent severe hypertension; only two patients in the hydralazine group presented with hypotension. Palpitations (p=0.01) and maternal tachycardia (p=0.05) occurred significantly more often in patients treated with hydralazine. The main neonatal outcomes were very similar per group; however, hypotension and bradycardia were significantly more frequent in the labetalol group. There were two neonatal deaths per antihypertensive drug group.
CONCLUSIONS: This randomized clinical trial shows that labetalol and hydralazine fulfill the criteria required for an antihypertensive drug to treat severe hypertension in pregnancy.

PMID 16621226  Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;128(1-2)・・・
著者: William J Powers, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Teri Ackerson, Opeolu M Adeoye, Nicholas C Bambakidis, Kyra Becker, José Biller, Michael Brown, Bart M Demaerschalk, Brian Hoh, Edward C Jauch, Chelsea S Kidwell, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Bruce Ovbiagele, Phillip A Scott, Kevin N Sheth, Andrew M Southerland, Deborah V Summers, David L Tirschwell, American Heart Association Stroke Council
雑誌名: Stroke. 2018 Mar;49(3):e46-e110. doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000158. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke in a single document. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 guidelines and subsequent updates.
METHODS: Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained. Members were not allowed to participate in discussions or to vote on topics relevant to their relations with industry. The members of the writing group unanimously approved all recommendations except when relations with industry precluded members voting. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 4 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. These guidelines use the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2015 Class of Recommendations and Levels of Evidence and the new American Heart Association guidelines format.
RESULTS: These guidelines detail prehospital care, urgent and emergency evaluation and treatment with intravenous and intra-arterial therapies, and in-hospital management, including secondary prevention measures that are appropriately instituted within the first 2 weeks. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care in both the prehospital and hospital settings.
CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines are based on the best evidence currently available. In many instances, however, only limited data exist demonstrating the urgent need for continued research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
PMID 29367334  Stroke. 2018 Mar;49(3):e46-e110. doi: 10.1161/STR.00000・・・
著者: P G Hagan, C A Nienaber, E M Isselbacher, D Bruckman, D J Karavite, P L Russman, A Evangelista, R Fattori, T Suzuki, J K Oh, A G Moore, J F Malouf, L A Pape, C Gaca, U Sechtem, S Lenferink, H J Deutsch, H Diedrichs, J Marcos y Robles, A Llovet, D Gilon, S K Das, W F Armstrong, G M Deeb, K A Eagle
雑誌名: JAMA. 2000 Feb 16;283(7):897-903.
Abstract/Text CONTEXT: Acute aortic dissection is a life-threatening medical emergency associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Data are limited regarding the effect of recent imaging and therapeutic advances on patient care and outcomes in this setting.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute aortic dissection.
DESIGN: Case series with patients enrolled between January 1996 and December 1998. Data were collected at presentation and by physician review of hospital records.
SETTING: The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection, consisting of 12 international referral centers.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 464 patients (mean age, 63 years; 65.3% male), 62.3% of whom had type A dissection.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presenting history, physical findings, management, and mortality, as assessed by history and physician review of hospital records.
RESULTS: While sudden onset of severe sharp pain was the single most common presenting complaint, the clinical presentation was diverse. Classic physical findings such as aortic regurgitation and pulse deficit were noted in only 31.6% and 15.1% of patients, respectively, and initial chest radiograph and electrocardiogram were frequently not helpful (no abnormalities were noted in 12.4% and 31.3% of patients, respectively). Computed tomography was the initial imaging modality used in 61.1%. Overall in-hospital mortality was 27.4%. Mortality of patients with type A dissection managed surgically was 26%; among those not receiving surgery (typically because of advanced age and comorbidity), mortality was 58%. Mortality of patients with type B dissection treated medically was 10.7%. Surgery was performed in 20% of patients with type B dissection; mortality in this group was 31.4%.
CONCLUSIONS: Acute aortic dissection presents with a wide range of manifestations, and classic findings are often absent. A high clinical index of suspicion is necessary. Despite recent advances, in-hospital mortality rates remain high. Our data support the need for continued improvement in prevention, diagnosis, and management of acute aortic dissection.

PMID 10685714  JAMA. 2000 Feb 16;283(7):897-903.
著者: B Zampaglione, C Pascale, M Marchisio, P Cavallo-Perin
雑誌名: Hypertension. 1996 Jan;27(1):144-7.
Abstract/Text The prevalence and clinical picture of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies in an emergency department are poorly known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertensive crises (urgencies and emergencies) in an emergency department during 12 months of observation and the frequency of end-organ damage with related clinical pictures during the first 24 hours after presentation. Hypertensive crises (76% urgencies, 24% emergencies) represented more than one fourth of all medical urgencies-emergencies. The most frequent signs of presentation were headache (22%), epistaxis (17%), faintness, and psychomotor agitation (10%) in hypertensive urgencies and chest pain (27%), dyspnea (22%), and neurological deficit (21%) in hypertensive emergencies. Types of end-organ damage associated with hypertensive emergencies included cerebral infarction (24%), acute pulmonary edema (23%), and hypertensive encephalopathy (16%) as well as cerebral hemorrhage, which accounted for only 4.5%. Age (67 +/- 16 versus 60 +/- 14 years [mean +/- SD], P < .001) and diastolic blood pressure (130 +/- 15 versus 126 +/- 10 mm Hg, P < .002) were higher in hypertensive emergencies than urgencies. Hypertension that was unknown at presentation was present in 8% of hypertensive emergencies and 28% of hypertensive urgencies. In conclusion hypertensive urgencies and emergencies are common events in the emergency department and differ in their clinical patterns of presentation. Cerebral infarction and acute pulmonary edema are the most frequent types of end-organ damage in hypertensive emergencies.

PMID 8591878  Hypertension. 1996 Jan;27(1):144-7.
著者: Jason N Katz, Joel M Gore, Alpesh Amin, Frederick A Anderson, Joseph F Dasta, James J Ferguson, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Stephan A Mayer, Alan S Multz, W Frank Peacock, Eric Peterson, Charles Pollack, Gene Yong Sung, Andrew Shorr, Joseph Varon, Allison Wyman, Leigh A Emery, Christopher B Granger, STAT Investigators
雑誌名: Am Heart J. 2009 Oct;158(4):599-606.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.07.020.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the care of patients with acute severe hypertension requiring hospitalization. We characterized contemporary practice patterns and outcomes for this population.
METHODS: STAT is a 25-institution, US registry of consecutive patients with acute severe hypertension (>180 mm Hg systolic and/or >110 mm Hg diastolic; >140 and/or >90 for subarachnoid hemorrhage) treated with intravenous therapy in a critical care setting.
RESULTS: One thousand five hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled (January 2007 to April 2008). Median age was 58 years (interquartile range 49-70 years), 779 (49%) were women, and 892 (56%) were African American; 27% (n = 425) had a prior admission for acute hypertension and 486 (31%) had chronic kidney disease. Median qualifying blood pressure (BP) was 200 (186, 220) systolic and 110 (93, 123) mm Hg diastolic. Initial intravenous antihypertensive therapies used to control BP varied, with 1,009 (64%) patients requiring multiple drugs. Median time to achieve a systolic BP <160 mm Hg (<140 mm Hg for subarachnoid hemorrhage) was 4.0 (0.8, 12) hours; 893 (60%) had reelevation to >180 (>140 for subarachnoid hemorrhage) after initial control; and 63 (4.0%) developed iatrogenic hypotension. Hospital mortality was 6.9% (n = 109) with an aggregate 90-day mortality rate of 11% (174/1,588); 59% (n = 943) had acute/worsening end-organ dysfunction during hospitalization. The 90-day readmission rate was 37% (523/1,415), of which one quarter (132/523) was due to recurrent acute severe hypertension.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights heterogeneity in care, BP control, and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute severe hypertension.

PMID 19781420  Am Heart J. 2009 Oct;158(4):599-606.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.・・・

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