今日の臨床サポート

糖尿病性腎症

著者: 古家大祐 金沢医科大学 糖尿病・内分泌内科学

監修: 岡田浩一 埼玉医科大学 腎臓内科

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2020/04/03
参考ガイドライン:
  1. 日本糖尿病学会:糖尿病診療ガイドライン2019
  1. 日本腎臓学会:エビデンスに基づくCKD診療ガイドライン2018
患者向け説明資料

概要・推奨   

  1. すべての糖尿病患者では、定期的に検尿(微量アルブミン尿、蛋白尿)とeGFR の測定を行い、糖尿病性腎症発症を早期発見することが強く推奨される(推奨度1)。
  1. 厳格な血糖コントロール(目標HbA1c 7.0%未満)は、糖尿病性腎症の発症および進行を抑制するが、急激に血糖をコントロールすると低血糖を誘発して死亡率を悪化させる可能性もあり、患者によりバランスをとることが推奨される(推奨度2)。
  1. 顕性腎症期後期以降では経口血糖降下薬・インスリン治療の際に低血糖に対する注意が必要となり、特に、腎不全期(推算GFR30 mL/分/1.73㎡未満に相当)ではインスリン治療、DPP-4阻害薬、一部のGLP-1受容体作動薬、αグルコシダーゼ阻害薬が原則となる(推奨度2)。
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  1. 閲 覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が 必要とな ります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧に
  1. 閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります
  1. 閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約
  1. 閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。
薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
古家大祐 : 講演料(アステラス製薬,第一三共,大日本住友製薬,田辺三菱製薬,日本イーライリリー,ノボノルディスクファーマ),研究費・助成金など(アストラゼネカ),奨学(奨励)寄付など(興和,大正製薬,日本たばこ産業,協和キリン,ノボノルディスクファーマ),企業などが提供する寄付講座(小野薬品工業,大正ファーマ,田辺三菱製薬,日本ベーリンガーインゲルハイム,大正製薬)[2021年]
監修:岡田浩一 : 講演料(協和キリン,中外製薬,田辺三菱,第一三共),研究費・助成金など(協和キリン),奨学(奨励)寄付など(協和キリン,中外製薬,田辺三菱,第一三共,アステラス,MSD,武田薬品,鳥居薬品,ファイザー,ノバルティス,日本ベーリンガーインゲルハイム,大塚製薬,塩野義,大日本住友)[2021年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. 糖尿病診療ガイドライン2019およびエビデンスに基づくCKD診療ガイドライン2018に基づき、以下について改訂を行った。
  1. 高血圧を合併した微量アルブミン尿以上の糖尿病性腎症に対してACE阻害薬、ARBを推奨する。
  1. 大規模研究のメタ解析に基づき、SGLT-2阻害薬およびGLP-1受容体作動薬の糖尿病性腎症に対する影響を追加した。
  1. 正常血圧の糖尿病、アルブミン尿や蛋白尿のない高血圧合併糖尿病に対して、第一選択薬は、Ca拮抗薬、サイアザイド系利尿薬、ACE阻害薬、ARBである。
  1. 血糖降下薬であるSGLT-2阻害薬、GLP-1受容体作動薬は糖尿病性腎症の進行を抑制する。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報  
  1. 糖尿病性腎症とは、糖尿病の合併症により細小血管が障害された結果起きる腎障害である。
  1. 糖尿病性腎症が原因で、末期腎不全から透析導入に至る頻度が高く、糖尿病性腎症は、1998年から、わが国の透析療法導入を来す原疾患の1位となり、その割合は2017年末には42.5%となっている。
  1. 腎症の病期進展に伴い、心血管イベントの発症頻度も高まる。
  1. 早期の糖尿病性腎症を診断して、包括的な血糖・血圧・脂質管理を厳格に行うことが大事である。また、治療効果判定には尿アルブミン量減少、推算GFR値の年間低下率改善を評価する。
  1. 進行した糖尿病性腎症では、合併する貧血、骨ミネラル代謝異常、アシドーシスの有無を評価して治療を開始する。同時に、心血管疾患の検査を行う。
問診・診察のポイント  
  1. 糖尿病性腎症が進行したときは、浮腫を併発するため診断は容易だが、早期腎症は自覚症状もなく、診断には尿試験紙法検査、尿アルブミン/尿クレアチニン値の定量が必須である。

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文献 

著者: Peter Gaede, Henrik Lund-Andersen, Hans-Henrik Parving, Oluf Pedersen
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 7;358(6):580-91. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0706245.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Intensified multifactorial intervention - with tight glucose regulation and the use of renin-angiotensin system blockers, aspirin, and lipid-lowering agents - has been shown to reduce the risk of nonfatal cardiovascular disease among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria. We evaluated whether this approach would have an effect on the rates of death from any cause and from cardiovascular causes.
METHODS: In the Steno-2 Study, we randomly assigned 160 patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria to receive either intensive therapy or conventional therapy; the mean treatment period was 7.8 years. Patients were subsequently followed observationally for a mean of 5.5 years, until December 31, 2006. The primary end point at 13.3 years of follow-up was the time to death from any cause.
RESULTS: Twenty-four patients in the intensive-therapy group died, as compared with 40 in the conventional-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.89; P=0.02). Intensive therapy was associated with a lower risk of death from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.94; P=0.04) and of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.67; P<0.001). One patient in the intensive-therapy group had progression to end-stage renal disease, as compared with six patients in the conventional-therapy group (P=0.04). Fewer patients in the intensive-therapy group required retinal photocoagulation (relative risk, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.86; P=0.02). Few major side effects were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: In at-risk patients with type 2 diabetes, intensive intervention with multiple drug combinations and behavior modification had sustained beneficial effects with respect to vascular complications and on rates of death from any cause and from cardiovascular causes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00320008.)

Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
PMID 18256393  N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 7;358(6):580-91. doi: 10.1056/NE・・・
著者: Shin-ichi Araki, Masakazu Haneda, Daisuke Koya, Hideki Hidaka, Toshiro Sugimoto, Motohide Isono, Keiji Isshiki, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Takashi Uzu, Atsunori Kashiwagi
雑誌名: Diabetes. 2007 Jun;56(6):1727-30. doi: 10.2337/db06-1646. Epub 2007 Mar 14.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria in diabetic patients is a predictor for diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical impact of reducing microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients in an observational follow-up study.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 216 type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria during an initial 2-year evaluation period and observed them for the next 8 years. Remission and a 50% reduction of microalbuminuria were defined as a shift to normoalbuminuria and a reduction <50% from the initial level of microalbuminuria. The association between reducing microalbuminuria and first occurrence of a renal or cardiovascular event and annual decline rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was evaluated.
RESULTS: Twelve events occurred in 93 patients who attained a 50% reduction of microalbuminuria during the follow-up versus 35 events in 123 patients without a 50% reduction. The cumulative incidence rate of events was significantly lower in patients with a 50% reduction. A pooled logistic regression analysis revealed that the adjusted risk for events in subjects after a 50% reduction was 0.41 (95% CI 0.15-0.96). In addition, the annual decline rate of eGFR in patients with a 50% reduction was significantly slower than in those without such a reduction. The same results were also found in the analysis regarding whether remission occurred.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides clinical evidence implying that a reduction of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients is an integrated indicator for renal and cardiovascular risk reduction.

PMID 17360976  Diabetes. 2007 Jun;56(6):1727-30. doi: 10.2337/db06-164・・・
著者: Shin-ichi Araki, Masakazu Haneda, Toshiro Sugimoto, Motohide Isono, Keiji Isshiki, Atsunori Kashiwagi, Daisuke Koya
雑誌名: Diabetes. 2005 Oct;54(10):2983-7.
Abstract/Text To estimate the frequency of remission/regression of microalbuminuria and to identify factors affecting such outcomes in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, we observed 216 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria enrolled during an initial 2-year evaluation period for the next 6 years. Remission was defined as shift to normoalbuminuria and regression as a 50% reduction in urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) from one 2-year period to the next. Reduction of urinary AER was frequent, with a 6-year cumulative incidence of 51% (95% CI 42-60) for remission and 54% (45-63) for regression, whereas the frequency of progression to overt proteinuria was 28% (19-37). Microalbuminuria of short duration, the use of renin-angiotensin system-blocking drugs, and lower tertiles for HbA(1c) (<6.95%) and systolic blood pressure (<129 mmHg) were independently associated with remission or regression in the pooled logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that reduction in urinary AER occurs frequently in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Early detection of microalbuminuria and a multifactorial control may result in improved outcomes for diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular events.

PMID 16186402  Diabetes. 2005 Oct;54(10):2983-7.
著者: Rachel J Middleton, Robert N Foley, Janet Hegarty, Ching M Cheung, Patrick McElduff, J Martin Gibson, Philip A Kalra, Donal J O'Donoghue, John P New
雑誌名: Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Jan;21(1):88-92. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfi163. Epub 2005 Oct 12.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common and exhibit synergistic associations with premature mortality. Current diabetes guidelines in the UK recommend annual urinary albumin and serum creatinine determinations to screen for diabetic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of CKD in patients with diabetes and examine the ability of serum creatinine and albuminuria to detect clinically meaningful CKD compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
METHODS: All adults known to have diabetes in primary and secondary care in Salford, UK, alive with independent renal function on 1 January 2004 were included in this observational study (n=7596). Demographic and laboratory parameters were obtained from the Electronic Patient Record. eGFR was determined using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula. Clinically meaningful CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2).
RESULTS: Creatinine and albuminuria were measured in the preceding 2 years in 82.3 and 55.2% of subjects, respectively. In patients with CKD, normoalbuminuria was present in 48.8%, and serum creatinine was normal (or=120 micromol/l) had a sensitivity and specificity of 45.3 and 100%, respectively, to identify CKD. The combination of abnormal creatinine and albuminuria had an improved performance but still failed to detect a large number with CKD (sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 75.4%). Serum creatinine failed to identify CKD more often in females (OR 8.22, CI 6.56-10.29).
CONCLUSIONS: Undiagnosed CKD is common in diabetes. Current screening strategies, based on creatinine or albuminuria, fail to identify a considerable number of subjects with CKD. Incorporating eGFR into screening for CKD would identify individuals earlier in the natural history of the disease and enable early effective treatment to delay progression of CKD.

PMID 16221715  Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Jan;21(1):88-92. doi: 10.・・・
著者: Ko Hanai, Tetsuya Babazono, Izumi Nyumura, Kiwako Toya, Nobue Tanaka, Mizuho Tanaka, Akiko Ishii, Yasuhiko Iwamoto
雑誌名: Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Jun;24(6):1884-8. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfn716. Epub 2009 Jan 7.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study to explore the relationship between plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, and the development and progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: This was a hospital-based observational cohort study in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria [urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) <30 mg/g creatinine] or microalbuminuria (30 < or = ACR <300 mg/g creatinine). The primary endpoint was the development or progression of diabetic nephropathy, based on transition from any given stage to a more advanced stage of albuminuria.
RESULTS: We studied 225 diabetic patients, 81 women and 144 men, with a mean (+/-SD) age of 64 +/- 10 years. The majority (183) of patients were normoalbuminuric, with the remainder microalbuminuric (42). During the median follow-up period of 5.2 years, 27 normoalbuminuric and 10 microalbuminuric patients reached the primary endpoint. When patients were separated according to the median ADMA level (0.46 mumol/l), patients with higher ADMA levels had a greater incidence of reaching the endpoint (P = 0.014 by the log-rank test). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, the hazard ratio for reaching the endpoint for patients with higher versus lower ADMA levels was 2.72 (95% confidence interval 1.25-5.95; P = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma levels of ADMA may be a novel and potent predictor of the progression of nephropathy in adult Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

PMID 19131352  Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Jun;24(6):1884-8. doi: 10・・・
著者: S Katayama, T Moriya, S Tanaka, S Tanaka, Y Yajima, H Sone, S Iimuro, Y Ohashi, Y Akanuma, N Yamada, Japan Diabetes Complications Study Group
雑誌名: Diabetologia. 2011 May;54(5):1025-31. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-2025-0. Epub 2011 Feb 1.
Abstract/Text AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to determine the transition rate and factors associated with the progression of normo- and low microalbuminuria to diabetic nephropathy (overt proteinuria).
METHODS: For 8 years we prospectively observed 1,558 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose basal urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) had been measured as <17.0 mg/mmol at entry. The incidence of nephropathy (UACR >33.9 mg/mmol) was determined by measuring UACR twice a year.
RESULTS: Progression to nephropathy occurred in 74 patients. The annual transition rate was 0.67%, and was substantially higher for the low-microalbuminuric group than for the normoalbuminuric group (1.85% and 0.23%, respectively; hazard ratio for the low-microalbuminuric group 8.45, p < 0.01). The hazard ratio for an HbA(1c) of 7-9% or ≥9% was 2.72 (p < 0.01) or 5.81 (p < 0.01) relative to HbA(1c) <7.0%, respectively. In comparison with individuals with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of <120 mmHg, the hazard ratios for patients with an SBP of 120-140 mmHg or ≥140 mmHg were 2.31 (p = 0.06) and 3.54 (p < 0.01), respectively. Smoking also affected progression to proteinuria (hazard ratio 1.99, p < 0.01). In contrast, 30.3% of the low-microalbuminuric group returned to normoalbuminuria (i.e. were in remission).
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that if patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are receiving treatment from diabetologists for hyperglycaemia and hypertension when they are in the early stages of nephropathy (i.e. normo- or low microalbuminuria), their rate of transition to proteinuria is considerably lowered, and that differentiating patients with low microalbuminuria from those with high microalbuminuria might be clinically useful.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry C000000222.

PMID 21286682  Diabetologia. 2011 May;54(5):1025-31. doi: 10.1007/s001・・・
著者: Amanda I Adler, Richard J Stevens, Sue E Manley, Rudy W Bilous, Carole A Cull, Rury R Holman, UKPDS GROUP
雑誌名: Kidney Int. 2003 Jan;63(1):225-32. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00712.x.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The progression of nephropathy from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has not been well described from a single population. This study sought to describe the development and progression through the stages of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, persistently elevated plasma creatinine or renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death.
METHODS: Using observed and modeled data from 5097 subjects in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, we measured the annual probability of transition from stage to stage (incidence), prevalence, cumulative incidence, ten-year survival, median duration per stage, and risk of death from all-causes or cardiovascular disease.
RESULTS: From diagnosis of diabetes, progression to microalbuminuria occurred at 2.0% per year, from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria at 2.8% per year, and from macroalbuminuria to elevated plasma creatinine (>or=175 micromol/L) or renal replacement therapy at 2.3% per year. Ten years following diagnosis of diabetes, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 24.9%, of macroalbuminuria was 5.3%, and of elevated plasma creatinine or RRT was 0.8%. Patients with elevated plasma creatinine or RRT had an annual death rate of 19.2% (95% confidence interval, CI, 14.0 to 24.4%). There was a trend for increasing risk of cardiovascular death with increasing nephropathy (P < 0.0001), with an annual rate of 0.7% for subjects in the stage of no nephropathy, 2.0% for those with microalbuminuria, 3.5% for those with macroalbuminuria, and 12.1% with elevated plasma creatinine or RRT. Individuals with macroalbuminuria were more likely to die in any year than to develop renal failure.
CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes who develop microalbuminuria is substantial with one quarter affected by 10 years from diagnosis. Relatively fewer patients develop macroalbuminuria, but in those who do, the death rate exceeds the rate of progression to worse nephropathy.

PMID 12472787  Kidney Int. 2003 Jan;63(1):225-32. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-・・・
著者: P Gaede, P Vedel, H H Parving, O Pedersen
雑誌名: Lancet. 1999 Feb 20;353(9153):617-22. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07368-1.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes mellitus the aetiology of long-term complications is multifactorial. We carried out a randomised trial of stepwise intensive treatment or standard treatment of risk factors in patients with microalbuminuria.
METHODS: In this open, parallel trial patients were allocated standard treatment (n=80) or intensive treatment (n=80). Standard treatment followed Danish guidelines. Intensive treatment was a stepwise implementation of behaviour modification, pharmacological therapy targeting hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and microalbuminuria. The primary endpoint was the development of nephropathy (median albumin excretion rate >300 mg per 24 h in at least one of the two-yearly examinations). Secondary endpoints were the incidence or progression of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.
FINDINGS: The mean age was 55.1 years (SD 7.2) and patients were followed up for 3.8 years (0.3). Patients in the intensive group had significantly lower rates of progression to nephropathy (odds ratio 0.27 [95% CI 0-10-0.75]), progression of retinopathy (0.45 [0.21-0.95]), and progression of autonomic neuropathy (0.32 [0.12-0.78]) than those in the standard group.
INTERPRETATION: Intensified multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria slows progression to nephropathy, and progression of retinopathy and autonomic neuropathy. However, further studies are needed to establish the effect of intensified multifactorial treatment on macrovascular complications and mortality.

PMID 10030326  Lancet. 1999 Feb 20;353(9153):617-22. doi: 10.1016/S014・・・
著者: Peter Gaede, Pernille Vedel, Nicolai Larsen, Gunnar V H Jensen, Hans-Henrik Parving, Oluf Pedersen
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 30;348(5):383-93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021778.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Steno-2 Study, we compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment on modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
METHODS: The primary end point of this open, parallel trial was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, revascularization, and amputation. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment in accordance with national guidelines and 80 to receive intensive treatment, with a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacologic therapy that targeted hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria, along with secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with aspirin.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 55.1 years, and the mean follow-up was 7.8 years. The decline in glycosylated hemoglobin values, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels measured after an overnight fast, and urinary albumin excretion rate were all significantly greater in the intensive-therapy group than in the conventional-therapy group. Patients receiving intensive therapy also had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.73), nephropathy (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.87), retinopathy (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.86), and autonomic neuropathy (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.79).
CONCLUSIONS: A target-driven, long-term, intensified intervention aimed at multiple risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria reduces the risk of cardiovascular and microvascular events by about 50 percent.

Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
PMID 12556541  N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 30;348(5):383-93. doi: 10.1056/N・・・
著者: Kohjiro Ueki, Takayoshi Sasako, Yukiko Okazaki, Masayuki Kato, Sumie Okahata, Hisayuki Katsuyama, Mikiko Haraguchi, Ai Morita, Ken Ohashi, Kazuo Hara, Atsushi Morise, Kazuo Izumi, Naoki Ishizuka, Yasuo Ohashi, Mitsuhiko Noda, Takashi Kadowaki, J-DOIT3 Study Group
雑誌名: Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Dec;5(12):951-964. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30327-3. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Limited evidence suggests that multifactorial interventions for control of glucose, blood pressure, and lipids reduce macrovascular complications and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, safe and effective treatment targets for these risk factors have not been determined for such interventions.
METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, parallel-group trial, undertaken at 81 clinical sites in Japan, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients with type 2 diabetes aged 45-69 years with hypertension, dyslipidaemia, or both, and an HbA1c of 6·9% (52·0 mmol/mol) or higher, to receive conventional therapy for glucose, blood pressure, and lipid control (targets: HbA1c <6·9% [52·0 mmol/mol], blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, LDL cholesterol <120 mg/dL [or 100 mg/dL in patients with a history of coronary artery disease]) or intensive therapy (HbA1c <6·2% [44·3 mmol/mol], blood pressure <120/75 mm Hg, LDL cholesterol <80 mg/dL [or 70 mg/dL in patients with a history of coronary artery disease]). Randomisation was done using a computer-generated, dynamic balancing method, stratified by sex, age, HbA1c, and history of cardiovascular disease. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was occurrence of any of a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularisation (coronary artery bypass surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, carotid endarterectomy, percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty, and carotid artery stenting), and all-cause mortality. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00300976.
FINDINGS: Between June 16, 2006, and March 31, 2009, 2542 eligible patients were randomly assigned to intensive therapy or conventional therapy (1271 in each group) and followed up for a median of 8·5 years (IQR 7·3-9·0). Two patients in the intensive therapy group were found to be ineligible after randomisation and were excluded from the analyses. During the intervention period, mean HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the intensive therapy group than in the conventional therapy group (6·8% [51·0 mmol/mol] vs 7·2% [55·2 mmol/mol]; 123 mm Hg vs 129 mm Hg; 71 mm Hg vs 74 mm Hg; and 85 mg/dL vs 104 mg/dL, respectively; all p<0·0001). The primary outcome occurred in 109 patients in the intensive therapy group and in 133 patients in the conventional therapy group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·63-1·04; p=0·094). In a post-hoc breakdown of the composite outcome, frequencies of all-cause mortality (HR 1·01, 95% CI 0·68-1·51; p=0·95) and coronary events (myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; HR 0·86, 0·58-1·27; p=0·44) did not differ between groups, but cerebrovascular events (stroke, carotid endarterectomy, percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty, and carotid artery stenting) were significantly less frequent in the intensive therapy group (HR 0·42, 0·24-0·74; p=0·002). Apart from non-severe hypoglycaemia (521 [41%] patients in the intensive therapy group vs 283 [22%] in the conventional therapy group, p<0·0001) and oedema (193 [15%] vs 129 [10%], p=0·0001), the frequencies of major adverse events did not differ between groups.
INTERPRETATION: Our results do not fully support the efficacy of further intensified multifactorial intervention compared with current standard care for the prevention of a composite of coronary events, cerebrovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, our findings suggest a potential benefit of an intensified intervention for the prevention of cerebrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.
FUNDING: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, Asahi Kasei Pharma, Astellas Pharma, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Kissei Pharmaceutical, Kowa Pharmaceutical, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Mochida Pharmaceutical, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Novo Nordisk, Ono Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical, and Takeda.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 29079252  Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Dec;5(12):951-964. doi・・・
著者: L Robertson, N Waugh, A Robertson
雑誌名: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD002181. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002181.pub2. Epub 2007 Oct 17.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Diabetic renal disease (diabetic nephropathy) is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure. Once the process has started, it cannot be reversed by glycaemic control, but progression might be slowed by control of blood pressure and protein restriction.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary protein restriction on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Proceedings, Science Citation Index Expanded and bibliographies of included studies.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and before and after studies of the effects of a modified or restricted protein diet on diabetic renal function in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes following diet for at least four months were considered.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers performed data extraction and evaluation of quality independently. Pooling of results was done by means of random-effects model.
MAIN RESULTS: Twelve studies were included, nine RCTs and three before and after studies. Only one study explored all-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as endpoints. The relative risk (RR) of ESRD or death was 0.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.72) for patients assigned to a low protein diet (LPD). Pooling of the seven RCTs in patients with type 1 diabetes resulted in a non-significant reduction in the decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 0.1 ml/min/month (95% CI -0.1 to 0.3) in the LPD group. For type 2 diabetes, one trial showed a small insignificant improvement in the rate of decline of GFR in the protein-restricted group and a second found a similar decline in both the intervention and control groups. Actual protein intake in the intervention groups ranged from 0.7 to 1.1 g/kg/day. One study noted malnutrition in the LPD group. We found no data on the effects of LPDs on health-related quality of life and costs.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results show that reducing protein intake appears to slightly slow progression to renal failure but not statistically significantly so. However, questions concerning the level of protein intake and compliance remain. Further longer-term research on large representative groups of patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is necessary. Because of the variability amongst patients, there might perhaps be a six month therapeutic trial of protein restriction in all individuals, with continuation only in those who responded best. Trials are required of different types of protein.

PMID 17943769  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD002181. d・・・
著者: D Koya, M Haneda, S Inomata, Y Suzuki, D Suzuki, H Makino, K Shikata, Y Murakami, Y Tomino, K Yamada, S I Araki, A Kashiwagi, R Kikkawa, Low-Protein Diet Study Group
雑誌名: Diabetologia. 2009 Oct;52(10):2037-45. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1467-8. Epub 2009 Aug 4.
Abstract/Text AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend a low-protein diet for type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether a low-protein diet could prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
METHODS: This was a multi-site parallel randomised controlled trial for prevention of diabetic nephropathy progression among 112 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy. It was conducted in Japan from 1 December 1997 to 30 April 2006. The participants were randomly assigned using a central computer-generated schedule to either low-protein diet (0.8 g kg(-1) day(-1)) and normal-protein diet (1.2 g kg(-1) day(-1)), and were followed for 5 years. The participants and investigators were not blinded to the assignment. The primary outcomes were the annual change in estimated GFR and creatinine clearance, the incidence of doubling of serum creatinine and the time to doubling of baseline serum creatinine.
RESULTS: The study was completed by 47 (84%) of 56 participants in the low-protein diet group and 41 (73%) of 56 participants in the normal-diet group. During the study period, the difference in mean annual change in estimated GFR between the low-protein diet and the normal-protein diet groups was -0.3 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) (95% CI -3.9, 4.4; p = 0.93). The difference in mean annual change in creatinine clearance between the low-protein diet and the normal-protein diet groups was -0.006 ml s(-1) 1.73 m(-2) (95% CI -0.089, 0.112; p = 0.80). A doubling of serum creatinine was reached in 16 patients of the low-protein group (34.0%), compared with 15 in the normal-protein group (36.6%), the difference between groups being -2.6% (95% CI -22.6, 17.5; p = 0.80). The time to doubling of serum creatinine was similar in both groups (p = 0.66).
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: It is extremely difficult to get patients to follow a long-term low-protein diet. Although in the low-protein group overall protein intake was slightly (but not significantly) lower, it did not confer renoprotection.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00448526.
FUNDING: Research grant from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.

PMID 19652945  Diabetologia. 2009 Oct;52(10):2037-45. doi: 10.1007/s00・・・
著者: American Diabetes Association
雑誌名: Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(Suppl 1):S135-S151. doi: 10.2337/dc20-S011.
Abstract/Text The American Diabetes Association (ADA) "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" includes the ADA's current clinical practice recommendations and is intended to provide the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals and guidelines, and tools to evaluate quality of care. Members of the ADA Professional Practice Committee, a multidisciplinary expert committee (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-SPPC), are responsible for updating the Standards of Care annually, or more frequently as warranted. For a detailed description of ADA standards, statements, and reports, as well as the evidence-grading system for ADA's clinical practice recommendations, please refer to the Standards of Care Introduction (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-SINT). Readers who wish to comment on the Standards of Care are invited to do so at professional.diabetes.org/SOC.

© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.
PMID 31862754  Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(Suppl 1):S135-S151. doi: 10.・・・
著者: Y Ohkubo, H Kishikawa, E Araki, T Miyata, S Isami, S Motoyoshi, Y Kojima, N Furuyoshi, M Shichiri
雑誌名: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995 May;28(2):103-17.
Abstract/Text To examine whether intensive glycemic control could decrease the frequency or severity of diabetic microvascular complications, we performed a prospective study of Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) treated with multiple insulin injection treatment. A total of 110 patients with NIDDM was randomly assigned to multiple insulin injection treatment group (MIT group) or to conventional insulin injection treatment group (CIT group). Fifty-five NIDDM patients who showed no retinopathy and urinary albumin excretions < 30 mg/24 h at the baseline were evaluated in the primary-prevention cohort, and the other 55 NIDDM patients who showed simple retinopathy and urinary albumin excretions < 300 mg/24 h were evaluated in the secondary-intervention cohort. The appearance and the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were evaluated every 6 months over a 6-year period. The worsening of complications in this study was defined as an increase of 2 or more steps in the 19 stages of the modified ETDRS interim scale for retinopathy and an increase of one or more steps in 3 stages (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and albuminuria) for nephropathy. The cumulative percentages of the development and the progression in retinopathy after 6 years were 7.7% for the MIT group and 32.0% for the CIT group in the primary-prevention cohort (P = 0.039), and 19.2% for MIT group and 44.0% for CIT group in the secondary-intervention cohort (P = 0.049). The cumulative percentages of the development and the progression in nephropathy after 6 years were 7.7% for the MIT group and 28.0% for the CIT group in the primary-prevention cohort (P = 0.032), and 11.5% and 32.0%, respectively, for the MIT and CIT groups in the secondary-intervention cohort (P = 0.044). In neurological tests after 6 years, MIT group showed significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocities, while the CIT group showed significant deterioration in the median nerve conduction velocities and vibration threshold. Although both postural hypotension and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval tended to improve in the MIT group, they deteriorated in the CIT group. In conclusion, intensive glycemic control by multiple insulin injection therapy can delay the onset and the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy in Japanese patients with NIDDM. From this study, the glycemic threshold to prevent the onset and the progression of diabetic microangiopathy is indicated as follows; HbA1c < 6.5%, FBG < 110 mg/dl, and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose concentration < 180 mg/dl.

PMID 7587918  Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995 May;28(2):103-17.
著者: Christoph Wanner, Silvio E Inzucchi, John M Lachin, David Fitchett, Maximilian von Eynatten, Michaela Mattheus, Odd Erik Johansen, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl, Bernard Zinman, EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 28;375(4):323-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1515920. Epub 2016 Jun 14.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. We wanted to determine the long-term renal effects of empagliflozin, an analysis that was a prespecified component of the secondary microvascular outcome of that trial.
METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 30 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area to receive either empagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg or 25 mg) or placebo once daily. Prespecified renal outcomes included incident or worsening nephropathy (progression to macroalbuminuria, doubling of the serum creatinine level, initiation of renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal disease) and incident albuminuria.
RESULTS: Incident or worsening nephropathy occurred in 525 of 4124 patients (12.7%) in the empagliflozin group and in 388 of 2061 (18.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the empagliflozin group, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.70; P<0.001). Doubling of the serum creatinine level occurred in 70 of 4645 patients (1.5%) in the empagliflozin group and in 60 of 2323 (2.6%) in the placebo group, a significant relative risk reduction of 44%. Renal-replacement therapy was initiated in 13 of 4687 patients (0.3%) in the empagliflozin group and in 14 of 2333 patients (0.6%) in the placebo group, representing a 55% lower relative risk in the empagliflozin group. There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of incident albuminuria. The adverse-event profile of empagliflozin in patients with impaired kidney function at baseline was similar to that reported in the overall trial population.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin was associated with slower progression of kidney disease and lower rates of clinically relevant renal events than was placebo when added to standard care. (Funded by the Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company Diabetes Alliance; EMPA-REG OUTCOME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01131676.).

PMID 27299675  N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 28;375(4):323-34. doi: 10.1056/N・・・
著者: Steven P Marso, Gilbert H Daniels, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Peter Kristensen, Johannes F E Mann, Michael A Nauck, Steven E Nissen, Stuart Pocock, Neil R Poulter, Lasse S Ravn, William M Steinberg, Mette Stockner, Bernard Zinman, Richard M Bergenstal, John B Buse, LEADER Steering Committee, LEADER Trial Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 28;375(4):311-22. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1603827. Epub 2016 Jun 13.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown.
METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk to receive liraglutide or placebo. The primary composite outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. The primary hypothesis was that liraglutide would be noninferior to placebo with regard to the primary outcome, with a margin of 1.30 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. No adjustments for multiplicity were performed for the prespecified exploratory outcomes.
RESULTS: A total of 9340 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 3.8 years. The primary outcome occurred in significantly fewer patients in the liraglutide group (608 of 4668 patients [13.0%]) than in the placebo group (694 of 4672 [14.9%]) (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.01 for superiority). Fewer patients died from cardiovascular causes in the liraglutide group (219 patients [4.7%]) than in the placebo group (278 [6.0%]) (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.007). The rate of death from any cause was lower in the liraglutide group (381 patients [8.2%]) than in the placebo group (447 [9.6%]) (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97; P=0.02). The rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure were nonsignificantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group. The most common adverse events leading to the discontinuation of liraglutide were gastrointestinal events. The incidence of pancreatitis was nonsignificantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: In the time-to-event analysis, the rate of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was lower with liraglutide than with placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk and the National Institutes of Health; LEADER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01179048.).

PMID 27295427  N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 28;375(4):311-22. doi: 10.1056/N・・・
著者: Marcel H A Muskiet, Lennart Tonneijck, Erik J M van Bommel, Mark M Smits, Daniël H van Raalte
雑誌名: Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016 Oct;4(10):812-4. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30214-5.
Abstract/Text
PMID 27663955  Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016 Oct;4(10):812-4. doi: ・・・
著者: David Z I Cherney, Bernard Zinman, Silvio E Inzucchi, Audrey Koitka-Weber, Michaela Mattheus, Maximilian von Eynatten, Christoph Wanner
雑誌名: Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Aug;5(8):610-621. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30182-1. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: In a pooled analysis of short-term trials, short-term treatment with the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and prevalent albuminuria. In this exploratory analysis of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, we report the short-term and long-term effects of empagliflozin on albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease, according to patients' baseline albuminuria status.
METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 590 sites in 42 countries, we randomly assigned patients aged 18 years and older with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (1:1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo in addition to standard of care until at least 691 patients experienced an adjudicated event included in the primary outcome. We did the randomisation with a computer-generated random-sequence and interactive voice-response and web-response system, stratified by HbA1c, BMI, region, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Patients, investigators, and individuals involved in analysis of trial data were masked to treatment assignment. The primary and secondary efficacy and safety endpoints of this trial have been reported previously. Here, we report urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) data for the pooled empagliflozin group versus placebo according to albuminuria status at baseline (normoalbuminuria: UACR <30 mg/g; microalbuminuria: UACR ≥30 to ≤300 mg/g; and macroalbuminuria: UACR >300 mg/g). We did the analysis with mixed-model repeated measures including prespecified and post-hoc tests. This study is completed and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01131676.
FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2010, and April 22, 2013, we randomly assigned 7028 patients to treatment groups and 7020 patients received treatment. At baseline, we had UACR data for 6953 patients: 4171 (59% of treated patients; 1382 assigned to placebo and 2789 assigned to empagliflozin) had normoalbuminuria, 2013 (29%; 675 assigned to placebo and 1338 assigned to empagliflozin) had microalbuminuria, and 769 (11%; 260 assigned to placebo and 509 assigned to empagliflozin) had macroalbuminuria. Median treatment duration was 2·6 years (IQR 2·0-3·4; 136 weeks) and median observation time was 3·1 years (2·2-3·6; 164 weeks). After short-term treatment at week 12, the placebo-adjusted geometric mean ratio of UACR change from baseline with empagliflozin was -7% (95% CI -12 to -2; p=0·013) in patients with normoalbuminuria, -25% (-31 to -19; p<0·0001) in patients with microalbuminuria, and -32% (-41 to -23; p<0·0001) in patients with macroalbuminuria. The reductions in UACR were maintained with empagliflozin in all three groups compared with placebo during long-term treatment when measured at 164 weeks. At follow-up, after cessation of treatment for a median of 34 or 35 days, UACR was lower in the empagliflozin versus placebo group in those with baseline microalbuminuria (placebo-corrected adjusted geometric mean ratio of relative change from baseline with empagliflozin: -22%, 95% CI -32 to -11; p=0·0003) or macroalbuminuria (-29%, -44 to -10; p=0·0048), but not for patients with baseline normoalbuminuria (1%, -8 to 10; p=0·8911). Patients treated with empagliflozin were more likely to experience a sustained improvement from microalbuminuria to normoalbuminuria (hazard ratio [HR] 1·43, 95% CI 1·22 to 1·67; p<0·0001) or from macroalbuminuria to microalbuminuria or normoalbuminuria (HR 1·82, 1·40 to 2·37; p<0·0001), and less likely to experience a sustained deterioration from normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria (HR 0·84, 0·74 to 0·95; p=0·0077). The proportions of patients with any adverse events, serious adverse events, and adverse events leading to discontinuation increased with worsening UACR status at baseline, but were similar between treatment groups. The proportion of patients with genital infections was greater with empagliflozin than placebo in all subgroups by UACR status.
INTERPRETATION: These results support short-term and long-term benefits of empagliflozin on urinary albumin excretion, irrespective of patients' albuminuria status at baseline.
FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim & Eli Lilly and Company Diabetes Alliance.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 28666775  Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Aug;5(8):610-621. doi:・・・
著者: Johannes F E Mann, David D Ørsted, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Steven P Marso, Neil R Poulter, Søren Rasmussen, Karen Tornøe, Bernard Zinman, John B Buse, LEADER Steering Committee and Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 31;377(9):839-848. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1616011.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: In a randomized, controlled trial that compared liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk who were receiving usual care, we found that liraglutide resulted in lower risks of the primary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and death. However, the long-term effects of liraglutide on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown.
METHODS: We report the prespecified secondary renal outcomes of that randomized, controlled trial in which patients were assigned to receive liraglutide or placebo. The secondary renal outcome was a composite of new-onset persistent macroalbuminuria, persistent doubling of the serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease, or death due to renal disease. The risk of renal outcomes was determined with the use of time-to-event analyses with an intention-to-treat approach. Changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria were also analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 9340 patients underwent randomization, and the median follow-up of the patients was 3.84 years. The renal outcome occurred in fewer participants in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group (268 of 4668 patients vs. 337 of 4672; hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.92; P=0.003). This result was driven primarily by the new onset of persistent macroalbuminuria, which occurred in fewer participants in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group (161 vs. 215 patients; hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P=0.004). The rates of renal adverse events were similar in the liraglutide group and the placebo group (15.1 events and 16.5 events per 1000 patient-years), including the rate of acute kidney injury (7.1 and 6.2 events per 1000 patient-years, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This prespecified secondary analysis shows that, when added to usual care, liraglutide resulted in lower rates of the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease than placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk and the National Institutes of Health; LEADER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01179048 .).

PMID 28854085  N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 31;377(9):839-848. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Ngozi Erondu, Wayne Shaw, Gordon Law, Mehul Desai, David R Matthews, CANVAS Program Collaborative Group
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):644-657. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1611925. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
Abstract/Text Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Results The mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.02 for superiority). Although on the basis of the prespecified hypothesis testing sequence the renal outcomes are not viewed as statistically significant, the results showed a possible benefit of canagliflozin with respect to the progression of albuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) and the composite outcome of a sustained 40% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the need for renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal causes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.77). Adverse reactions were consistent with the previously reported risks associated with canagliflozin except for an increased risk of amputation (6.3 vs. 3.4 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.75); amputations were primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. Conclusions In two trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, patients treated with canagliflozin had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received placebo but a greater risk of amputation, primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CANVAS and CANVAS-R ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01032629 and NCT01989754 , respectively.).

PMID 28605608  N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):644-657. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: Brendon L Neuen, Tamara Young, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic, Laurent Billot, Kenneth W Mahaffey, David M Charytan, David C Wheeler, Clare Arnott, Severine Bompoint, Adeera Levin, Meg J Jardine
雑誌名: Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 Nov;7(11):845-854. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30256-6. Epub 2019 Sep 5.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on kidney failure, particularly the need for dialysis or transplantation or death due to kidney disease, is uncertain. Additionally, previous studies have been underpowered to robustly assess heterogeneity of effects on kidney outcomes by different levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. We aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on major kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and to determine the consistency of effect size across trials and different levels of eGFR and albuminuria.
METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled, cardiovascular or kidney outcome trials of SGLT2 inhibitors that reported effects on major kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE and Embase from database inception to June 14, 2019, to identify eligible trials. The primary outcome was a composite of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease. We used random-effects models to obtain summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs and random-effects meta-regression to explore effect modification by subgroups of baseline eGFR, albuminuria, and use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. This review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019131774).
FINDINGS: From 2085 records identified, four studies met our inclusion criteria, assessing three SGLT2 inhibitors: empagliflozin (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), canagliflozin (CANVAS Program and CREDENCE), and dapagliflozin (DECLARE-TIMI 58). From a total of 38 723 participants, 252 required dialysis or transplantation or died of kidney disease, 335 developed end-stage kidney disease, and 943 had acute kidney injury. SGLT2 inhibitors substantially reduced the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·52-0·86, p=0·0019), an effect consistent across studies (I2=0%, pheterogeneity=0·53). SGLT2 inhibitors also reduced end-stage kidney disease (0·65, 0·53-0·81, p<0·0001), and acute kidney injury (0·75, 0·66-0·85, p<0·0001), with consistent benefits across studies. Although we identified some evidence that the proportional effect of SGLT2 inhibitors might attenuate with declining kidney function (ptrend=0·073), there was clear, separate evidence of benefit for all eGFR subgroups, including for participants with a baseline eGFR 30-45 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (RR 0·70, 95% CI 0·54-0·91, p=0·0080). Renoprotection was also consistent across studies irrespective of baseline albuminuria (ptrend=0·66) and use of RAS blockade (pheterogeneity=0·31).
INTERPRETATION: SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes and provided protection against acute kidney injury. These data provide substantive evidence supporting the use of SGLT2 inhibitors to prevent major kidney outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes.
FUNDING: None.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 31495651  Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 Nov;7(11):845-854. doi・・・
著者: Piero Ruggenenti, Anna Fassi, Anelja Parvanova Ilieva, Simona Bruno, Ilian Petrov Iliev, Varusca Brusegan, Nadia Rubis, Giulia Gherardi, Federica Arnoldi, Maria Ganeva, Bogdan Ene-Iordache, Flavio Gaspari, Annalisa Perna, Antonio Bossi, Roberto Trevisan, Alessandro R Dodesini, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2004 Nov 4;351(19):1941-51. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa042167. Epub 2004 Oct 31.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The multicenter double-blind, randomized Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) was designed to assess whether angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, alone or in combination, prevent microalbuminuria in subjects with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and normal urinary albumin excretion.
METHODS: We studied 1204 subjects, who were randomly assigned to receive at least three years of treatment with trandolapril (at a dose of 2 mg per day) plus verapamil (sustained-release formulation, 180 mg per day), trandolapril alone (2 mg per day), verapamil alone (sustained-release formulation, 240 mg per day), or placebo. The target blood pressure was 120/80 mm Hg. The primary end point was the development of persistent microalbuminuria (overnight albumin excretion, > or =20 microg per minute at two consecutive visits).
RESULTS: The primary outcome was reached in 5.7 percent of the subjects receiving trandolapril plus verapamil, 6.0 percent of the subjects receiving trandolapril, 11.9 percent of the subjects receiving verapamil, and 10.0 percent of control subjects receiving placebo. The estimated acceleration factor (which quantifies the effect of one treatment relative to another in accelerating or slowing disease progression) adjusted for predefined baseline characteristics was 0.39 for the comparison between verapamil plus trandolapril and placebo (P=0.01), 0.47 for the comparison between trandolapril and placebo (P=0.01), and 0.83 for the comparison between verapamil and placebo (P=0.54). Trandolapril plus verapamil and trandolapril alone delayed the onset of microalbuminuria by factors of 2.6 and 2.1, respectively. Serious adverse events were similar in all treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with type 2 diabetes and hypertension but with normoalbuminuria, the use of trandolapril plus verapamil and trandolapril alone decreased the incidence of microalbuminuria to a similar extent. The effect of verapamil alone was similar to that of placebo.

Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
PMID 15516697  N Engl J Med. 2004 Nov 4;351(19):1941-51. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: H H Parving, H Lehnert, J Bröchner-Mortensen, R Gomis, S Andersen, P Arner, Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria Study Group
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):870-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa011489.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
METHODS: A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level.
RESULTS: The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.

PMID 11565519  N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):870-8. doi: 10.1056/N・・・
著者: E J Lewis, L G Hunsicker, R P Bain, R D Rohde
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 1993 Nov 11;329(20):1456-62. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199311113292004.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Renal function declines progressively in patients who have diabetic nephropathy, and the decline may be slowed by antihypertensive drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether captopril has kidney-protecting properties independent of its effect on blood pressure in diabetic nephropathy.
METHODS: We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing captopril with placebo in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in whom urinary protein excretion was > or = 500 mg per day and the serum creatinine concentration was < or = 2.5 mg per deciliter (221 mumol per liter). Blood-pressure goals were defined to achieve control during a median follow-up of three years. The primary end point was a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration.
RESULTS: Two hundred seven patients received captopril, and 202 placebo. Serum creatinine concentrations doubled in 25 patients in the captopril group, as compared with 43 patients in the placebo group (P = 0.007). The associated reductions in risk of a doubling of the serum creatinine concentration were 48 percent in the captopril group as a whole, 76 percent in the subgroup with a baseline serum creatinine concentration of 2.0 mg per deciliter (177 mumol per liter), 55 percent in the subgroup with a concentration of 1.5 mg per deciliter (133 mumol per liter), and 17 percent in the subgroup with a concentration of 1.0 mg per deciliter (88.4 mumol per liter). The mean (+/- SD) rate of decline in creatinine clearance was 11 +/- 21 percent per year in the captopril group and 17 +/- 20 percent per year in the placebo group (P = 0.03). Among the patients whose base-line serum creatinine concentration was > or = 1.5 mg per deciliter, creatinine clearance declined at a rate of 23 +/- 25 percent per year in the captopril group and at a rate of 37 +/- 25 percent per year in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Captopril treatment was associated with a 50 percent reduction in the risk of the combined end points of death, dialysis, and transplantation that was independent of the small disparity in blood pressure between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Captopril protects against deterioration in renal function in insulin-dependent diabetic nephropathy and is significantly more effective than blood-pressure control alone.

PMID 8413456  N Engl J Med. 1993 Nov 11;329(20):1456-62. doi: 10.1056・・・
著者: E J Lewis, L G Hunsicker, W R Clarke, T Berl, M A Pohl, J B Lewis, E Ritz, R C Atkins, R Rohde, I Raz, Collaborative Study Group
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):851-60. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa011303.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether either the angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan or the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its capacity to lower the systemic blood pressure.
METHODS: We randomly assigned 1715 hypertensive patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes to treatment with irbesartan (300 mg daily), amlodipine (10 mg daily), or placebo. The target blood pressure was 135/85 mm Hg or less in all groups. We compared the groups with regard to the time to the primary composite end point of a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration, the development of end-stage renal disease, or death from any cause. We also compared them with regard to the time to a secondary, cardiovascular composite end point.
RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up was 2.6 years. Treatment with irbesartan was associated with a risk of the primary composite end point that was 20 percent lower than that in the placebo group (P=0.02) and 23 percent lower than that in the amlodipine group (P=0.006). The risk of a doubling of the serum creatinine concentration was 33 percent lower in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group (P=0.003) and 37 percent lower in the irbesartan group than in the amlodipine group (P<0.001). Treatment with irbesartan was associated with a relative risk of end-stage renal disease that was 23 percent lower than that in both other groups (P=0.07 for both comparisons). These differences were not explained by differences in the blood pressures that were achieved. The serum creatinine concentration increased 24 percent more slowly in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group (P=0.008) and 21 percent more slowly than in the amlodipine group (P=0.02). There were no significant differences in the rates of death from any cause or in the cardiovascular composite end point.
CONCLUSIONS: The angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan is effective in protecting against the progression of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. This protection is independent of the reduction in blood pressure it causes.

PMID 11565517  N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):851-60. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: B M Brenner, M E Cooper, D de Zeeuw, W F Keane, W E Mitch, H H Parving, G Remuzzi, S M Snapinn, Z Zhang, S Shahinfar, RENAAL Study Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):861-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa011161.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Interruption of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression of renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are not available for patients with type 2, the most common form of diabetes. We assessed the role of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.
METHODS: A total of 1513 patients were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study comparing losartan (50 to 100 mg once daily) with placebo, both taken in addition to conventional antihypertensive treatment (calcium-channel antagonists, diuretics, alpha-blockers, beta-blockers, and centrally acting agents), for a mean of 3.4 years. The primary outcome was the composite of a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration, end-stage renal disease, or death. Secondary end points included a composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes, proteinuria, and the rate of progression of renal disease.
RESULTS: A total of 327 patients in the losartan group reached the primary end point, as compared with 359 in the placebo group (risk reduction, 16 percent; P=0.02). Losartan reduced the incidence of a doubling of the serum creatinine concentration (risk reduction, 25 percent; P=0.006) and end-stage renal disease (risk reduction, 28 percent; P=0.002) but had no effect on the rate of death. The benefit exceeded that attributable to changes in blood pressure. The composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes was similar in the two groups, although the rate of first hospitalization for heart failure was significantly lower with losartan (risk reduction, 32 percent; P=0.005). The level of proteinuria declined by 35 percent with losartan (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo).
CONCLUSIONS: Losartan conferred significant renal benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy, and it was generally well tolerated.

PMID 11565518  N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 20;345(12):861-9. doi: 10.1056/N・・・
著者: Hermann Haller, Sadayoshi Ito, Joseph L Izzo, Andrzej Januszewicz, Shigehiro Katayama, Jan Menne, Albert Mimran, Ton J Rabelink, Eberhard Ritz, Luis M Ruilope, Lars C Rump, Giancarlo Viberti, ROADMAP Trial Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 10;364(10):907-17. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1007994.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria is an early predictor of diabetic nephropathy and premature cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether treatment with an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) would delay or prevent the occurrence of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria.
METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled trial, we assigned 4447 patients with type 2 diabetes to receive olmesartan (at a dose of 40 mg once daily) or placebo for a median of 3.2 years. Additional antihypertensive drugs (except angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or ARBs) were used as needed to lower blood pressure to less than 130/80 mm Hg. The primary outcome was the time to the first onset of microalbuminuria. The times to the onset of renal and cardiovascular events were analyzed as secondary end points.
RESULTS: The target blood pressure (<130/80 mm Hg) was achieved in nearly 80% of the patients taking olmesartan and 71% taking placebo; blood pressure measured in the clinic was lower by 3.1/1.9 mm Hg in the olmesartan group than in the placebo group. Microalbuminuria developed in 8.2% of the patients in the olmesartan group (178 of 2160 patients who could be evaluated) and 9.8% in the placebo group (210 of 2139); the time to the onset of microalbuminuria was increased by 23% with olmesartan (hazard ratio for onset of microalbuminuria, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.94; P=0.01). The serum creatinine level doubled in 1% of the patients in each group. Slightly fewer patients in the olmesartan group than in the placebo group had nonfatal cardiovascular events--81 of 2232 patients (3.6%) as compared with 91 of 2215 patients (4.1%) (P=0.37)--but a greater number had fatal cardiovascular events--15 patients (0.7%) as compared with 3 patients (0.1%) (P=0.01), a difference that was attributable in part to a higher rate of death from cardiovascular causes in the olmesartan group than in the placebo group among patients with preexisting coronary heart disease (11 of 564 patients [2.0%] vs. 1 of 540 [0.2%], P=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: Olmesartan was associated with a delayed onset of microalbuminuria, even though blood-pressure control in both groups was excellent according to current standards. The higher rate of fatal cardiovascular events with olmesartan among patients with preexisting coronary heart disease is of concern. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00185159.).

PMID 21388309  N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 10;364(10):907-17. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: Sripal Bangalore, Sunil Kumar, Iryna Lobach, Franz H Messerli
雑誌名: Circulation. 2011 Jun 21;123(24):2799-810, 9 p following 810. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.016337. Epub 2011 May 31.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Most guidelines for treatment of hypertension recommend a blood pressure (BP) goal of <140/90 mm Hg, and a more aggressive goal of <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes mellitus. However, in the recent Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, a lower BP was not beneficial. The optimal BP target in subjects with diabetes mellitus or those with impaired fasting glucose/glucose tolerance is therefore not well defined.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, and CENTRAL searches for randomized clinical trials from 1965 through October 2010 of antihypertensive therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance that enrolled at least 100 patients with achieved systolic BP of ≤ 135 mm Hg in the intensive BP control group and ≤ 140 mm Hg in the standard BP control group, had a follow-up of at least 1 year, and evaluated macrovascular or microvascular events. We identified 13 randomized clinical trials enrolling 37 736 participants. Intensive BP control was associated with a 10% reduction in all-cause mortality (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.98), a 17% reduction in stroke, and a 20% increase in serious adverse effects, but with similar outcomes for other macrovascular and microvascular (cardiac, renal, and retinal) events compared with standard BP control. The results were similar in a sensitivity analysis using a bayesian random-effects model. More intensive BP control (≤ 130 mm Hg) was associated with a greater reduction in stroke, but did not reduce other events. Meta-regression analysis showed continued risk reduction for stroke to a systolic BP of <120 mm Hg. However, at levels <130 mm Hg, there was a 40% increase in serious adverse events with no benefit for other outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The present body of evidence suggests that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, a systolic BP treatment goal of 130 to 135 mm Hg is acceptable. However, with more aggressive goals (<130 mm Hg), we observed target organ heterogeneity in that the risk of stroke continued to fall, but there was no benefit regarding the risk of other macrovascular or microvascular (cardiac, renal and retinal) events, and the risk of serious adverse events even increased.

PMID 21632497  Circulation. 2011 Jun 21;123(24):2799-810, 9 p followin・・・
著者: Johannes F E Mann, Roland E Schmieder, Leanne Dyal, Matthew J McQueen, Helmut Schumacher, Janice Pogue, Xingyu Wang, Jeffrey L Probstfield, Alvaro Avezum, Ernesto Cardona-Munoz, Gilles R Dagenais, Rafael Diaz, George Fodor, Jean M Maillon, Lars Rydén, Cheuk M Yu, Koon K Teo, Salim Yusuf, TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) Investigators
雑誌名: Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jul 7;151(1):1-10, W1-2. Epub 2009 May 18.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) blunt progression of advanced diabetic nephropathy, but their long-term renal effects in other patients are not clear.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term renal effects of telmisartan versus placebo in adults at high vascular risk.
DESIGN: Randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned by a central automated system between November 2001 and May 2004 and were followed until March 2008. Participants and investigators were blinded to intervention status.
SETTING: Multicenter, multinational study.
PATIENTS: 5927 adults with known cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage but without macroalbuminuria or heart failure who cannot tolerate angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
INTERVENTION: Telmisartan, 80 mg/d (n = 2954), or matching placebo (n = 2972) plus standard treatment for a mean of 56 months.
MEASUREMENTS: Composite renal outcome of dialysis or doubling of serum creatinine, changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and changes in albuminuria.
RESULTS: No important difference was found in the composite renal outcome with telmisartan (58 patients [1.96%]) versus placebo (46 patients [1.55%]) (hazard ratio, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.89]; P = 0.20). Among the telmisartan and placebo groups, 7 and 10 patients had dialysis and 56 and 36 patients had doubling of serum creatinine, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.59 [CI, 1.04 to 2.41]; P = 0.031). Albuminuria increased less with telmisartan than with placebo (32% [CI, 23% to 41%] vs. 63% [CI, 52% to 76%]; P < 0.001). Decreases in estimated GFR were greater with telmisartan than with placebo (mean change in estimated GFR, -3.2 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) [SD, 18.3] vs. -0.26 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) [SD, 18.0]; P < 0.001).
LIMITATION: Only 17 participants had dialysis.
CONCLUSION: In adults with vascular disease but without macroalbuminuria, the effects of telmisartan on major renal outcomes were similar to those of placebo.

PMID 19451556  Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jul 7;151(1):1-10, W1-2. Epub 2009・・・
著者: Rudy Bilous, Nish Chaturvedi, Anne Katrin Sjølie, John Fuller, Ronald Klein, Trevor Orchard, Massimo Porta, Hans-Henrik Parving
雑誌名: Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jul 7;151(1):11-20, W3-4. Epub 2009 May 18.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program.
SETTING: 309 secondary care centers.
PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 microg/min).
INTERVENTION: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients, caregivers, and researchers were blinded to treatment assignment. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 793 patients discontinued therapy and 63 were lost to follow-up.
MEASUREMENTS: Urinary albumin excretion rate, assessed annually by 2 overnight collections; if it was 20 microg/min or greater, then 2 further collections were done. The primary end point was new microalbuminuria (3 or 4 collections of urinary albumin excretion rate >or=20 microg/min). The secondary end point was rate of change in albuminuria.
RESULTS: Individual and pooled results of the 3 trials showed that candesartan had little effect on risk for microalbuminuria (pooled hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.78 to 1.16]; P = 0.60). Pooled results showed that the annual rate of change in albuminuria was 5.53% lower (CI, 0.73% to 10.14%; P = 0.024) with candesartan than with placebo.
LIMITATIONS: Investigators recruited mainly normotensive patients or patients with well-controlled hypertension who were at low overall vascular risk, which resulted in a low rate of microalbuminuria. Studies were powered for retinal and not renal end points.
CONCLUSION: Candesartan, 32 mg/d, for 4.7 years did not prevent microalbuminuria in mainly normotensive patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

PMID 19451554  Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jul 7;151(1):11-20, W3-4. Epub 200・・・
著者: Michael Mauer, Bernard Zinman, Robert Gardiner, Samy Suissa, Alan Sinaiko, Trudy Strand, Keith Drummond, Sandra Donnelly, Paul Goodyer, Marie Claire Gubler, Ronald Klein
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 2;361(1):40-51. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0808400.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Nephropathy and retinopathy remain important complications of type 1 diabetes. It is unclear whether their progression is slowed by early administration of drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system.
METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, controlled trial involving 285 normotensive patients with type 1 diabetes and normoalbuminuria and who were randomly assigned to receive losartan (100 mg daily), enalapril (20 mg daily), or placebo and followed for 5 years. The primary end point was a change in the fraction of glomerular volume occupied by mesangium in kidney-biopsy specimens. The retinopathy end point was a progression on a retinopathy severity scale of two steps or more. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed with the use of linear regression and logistic-regression models.
RESULTS: A total of 90% and 82% of patients had complete renal-biopsy and retinopathy data, respectively. Change in mesangial fractional volume per glomerulus over the 5-year period did not differ significantly between the placebo group (0.016 units) and the enalapril group (0.005, P=0.38) or the losartan group (0.026, P=0.26), nor were there significant treatment benefits for other biopsy-assessed renal structural variables. The 5-year cumulative incidence of microalbuminuria was 6% in the placebo group; the incidence was higher with losartan (17%, P=0.01 by the log-rank test) but not with enalapril (4%, P=0.96 by the log-rank test). As compared with placebo, the odds of retinopathy progression by two steps or more was reduced by 65% with enalapril (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.85) and by 70% with losartan (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.73), independently of changes in blood pressure. There were three biopsy-related serious adverse events that completely resolved. Chronic cough occurred in 12 patients receiving enalapril, 6 receiving losartan, and 4 receiving placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: Early blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with type 1 diabetes did not slow nephropathy progression but slowed the progression of retinopathy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00143949.)

2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
PMID 19571282  N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 2;361(1):40-51. doi: 10.1056/NEJ・・・

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以下の優待コードを入力いただくと、

契約期間が通常12ヵ月のところ、14ヵ月ご利用いただけます。

優待コード: (利用期限:まで)

ご契約はこちらから