今日の臨床サポート

神経芽腫(小児科)

著者: 松本公一 国立成育医療研究センター 小児がんセンター

監修: 五十嵐隆 国立成育医療研究センター

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2022/06/23
参考ガイドライン:
  1. 日本小児血液がん学会:小児がん診療ガイドライン2016年版
患者向け説明資料

概要・推奨   

  1. 神経芽腫の診断および治療は、小児腫瘍の診療に習熟した小児科医、小児外科医、病理医、放射線科医の協力のもとで行われるべきである(推奨度1)
  1. 神経芽腫の予後因子として、病期分類、発症年齢、病理分類、腫瘍細胞の生物学的特性が重要である(推奨度1)
  1. 低リスク群に対する治療は基本的には手術のみであるが、症例に応じて化学療法と放射線療法を併用する(推奨度1)
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薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、 著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※同効薬・小児・妊娠および授乳中の注意事項等は、海外の情報も掲載しており、日本の医療事情に適応しない場合があります。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適応の査定において保険適応及び保険適応外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適応の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
松本公一 : 特に申告事項無し[2022年]
監修:五十嵐隆 : 特に申告事項無し[2022年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. 定期レビューを行い、参考文献の見直し、高リスク治療、再発後治療等について追加記載した。
  1. 日本でも抗GD2抗体による免疫療法が使用可能となったため、追加記載した。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報(疫学・病態)  
  1. 胎児期の神経堤由来の副腎あるいは交感神経節に発生する悪性腫瘍である。約65%が腹部に発生し、その半分が副腎に発生する[1]
 
神経芽腫の臨床症状

神経芽腫は副腎や交感神経節に発症する。後腹膜に発症し椎間孔から脊柱管内に進展したものは脊髄圧迫症状を認めることがある(dumb-bell type)。低リスク群の腫瘍は被膜に覆われ安全に摘出される可能性が高いが、高リスク群では周囲組織に浸潤することが多く、全摘出は不可能となる。血行性にリンパ節や骨髄に転移することが多い、病期MSでは肝臓に転移することが特徴である。

出典

img1:  Recent advances in neuroblastoma.
 
 N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 10;362(23):2202-1・・・
 
  1. 小児悪性固形腫瘍のなかでは脳腫瘍に次いで多く、日本において年間130人程度(小児がん全体の6%)の新規患者が発生している[1][2]
  1. 発症年齢では0歳児が最も多く、3歳児に第2のピークがある二峰性の分布を示す[1]
  1. 1歳未満の乳児では発症し自然退縮する症例がある[3][4]
  1. 神経芽腫の約70%は診断時に遠隔転移が認められる[1]
  1. 病期分類、発症年齢、病理分類、腫瘍細胞の生物学的特性(MYCN遺伝子の増幅(図<図表>、11番線染色体長腕の異常、DNA ploidy)が予後因子として重要である[1][5]
  1. 予後因子によって、低リスク(極低リスク、低リスク)群、中間リスク群、高リスク群の3群に分類され層別化治療が行われている[1][5]
  1. 5年生存率は低リスク群で約90%以上、中間リスク群では約70~90%であるが、高リスク群では大量化学療法を含む集学的治療が行われるにもかかわらず50%未満と予後不良である[1][5]
問診・診察のポイント  
  1. 初発症状は原発部位と転移部位によってさまざまで、発熱、全身倦怠感、腹部膨隆、ホルネル症候群(患側の縮瞳、眼瞼下垂、発汗異常)、眼球突出、骨痛などがある[1]
  1. 乳児期の病期MSの症例では、肝腫大による腹部膨満と呼吸障害が特徴的である[1][3]
  1. 交感神経節に発生し脊柱管内に進展するダンベル型(dumb-bell type)では、下肢麻痺や膀胱直腸障害が唯一の初発症状となる場合があり、早期診断のうえで注意を要する[1]
  1. まれに眼球運動障害と小脳失調を呈するオプソクローヌス・ミオクローヌス症候群(opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome)を認める場合がある[1][6]

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文献 

H J Nickerson, K K Matthay, R C Seeger, G M Brodeur, H Shimada, C Perez, J B Atkinson, M Selch, R B Gerbing, D O Stram, J Lukens
Favorable biology and outcome of stage IV-S neuroblastoma with supportive care or minimal therapy: a Children's Cancer Group study.
J Clin Oncol. 2000 Feb;18(3):477-86.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: Stage IV-S neuroblastoma is a metastatic disease associated with spontaneous regression and good survival, but 10% to 20% of infants die from early complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcome and prognostic factors in infants with stage IV-S neuroblastoma treated prospectively with supportive care only or, in symptomatic patients, with low-dose cytotoxic therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty eligible infants were studied for response and survival with supportive care or, for symptomatic patients, cyclophosphamide 5 mg/kg/d for 5 days with or without hepatic radiation of 4.5 Gy over 3 days. Staging was reviewed centrally, and MYCN gene copy number, Shimada histopathologic classification, serum ferritin levels, and bone marrow immunocytology were determined.
RESULTS: Stage IV-S and International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 4S were 98% concordant. MYCN was not amplified in any of the tumors tested (n = 58), and Shimada histopathologic classification was favorable in 96% (n = 68/71). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate for all infants was 86% and the survival rate was 92%. Supportive care was the only treatment provided for 44 (55%) of 80 infants, and their 5-year survival rate was 100%, compared with 81% survival for those requiring cytotoxic therapy for symptoms (P =.005). Five of six deaths were in infants younger than 2 months of age at diagnosis and were due to complications of extensive abdominal involvement with respiratory compromise or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Although age CONCLUSION: This study confirms the favorable biologic features and excellent survival of infants with stage IV-S neuroblastoma with minimal therapy. Infants younger than 2 months old at diagnosis with rapidly progressive abdominal disease may benefit from earlier and more intensive treatment.

PMID 10653863
Barbara Hero, Thorsten Simon, Ruediger Spitz, Karen Ernestus, Astrid K Gnekow, Hans-Guenther Scheel-Walter, Dirk Schwabe, Freimut H Schilling, Gabriele Benz-Bohm, Frank Berthold
Localized infant neuroblastomas often show spontaneous regression: results of the prospective trials NB95-S and NB97.
J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 20;26(9):1504-10. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.12.3349.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: The excellent prognosis of localized neuroblastoma in infants, the overdiagnosis observed in neuroblastoma screening studies, and several case reports of regression of localized neuroblastoma prompted us to initiate a prospective cooperative trial on observation of localized neuroblastoma without cytotoxic treatment.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: For infants with localized neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, chemotherapy was scheduled only in cases with threatening symptoms; otherwise, the tumor was either resected or observed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
RESULTS: Of 340 eligible participants, 190 underwent resection, 57 were treated with chemotherapy, and 93 were observed with gross residual tumor. Of those 93 patients with unresected tumors, spontaneous regression was seen in 44, local progression in 28, progression to stage 4S in seven, and progression to stage 4 in four. Time to regression was quite variable, with first signs of regression noted 1 to 18 months after diagnosis and in 15 of 44 patients even after the first year of life. So far, complete regression was observed in 17 of 44 patients 4 to 20 months after diagnosis. Known clinical risk factors were not able to differentiate between patients with regression and regional or metastatic progression. Overall survival (OS; 3-year OS, 0.99 +/- 0.01) and metastases-free survival (rate at 3 years, 0.94 +/- 0.03) for patients with unresected tumors was excellent and was not different from patients treated with surgery or chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Spontaneous regression is regularly seen in infants with localized neuroblastoma and is not limited to the first year of life. A wait-and-see strategy is justified in those patients.

PMID 18349403
John M Maris, Michael D Hogarty, Rochelle Bagatell, Susan L Cohn
Neuroblastoma.
Lancet. 2007 Jun 23;369(9579):2106-20. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60983-0.
Abstract/Text The clinical hallmark of neuroblastoma is heterogeneity, with the likelihood of cure varying widely according to age at diagnosis, extent of disease, and tumour biology. A subset of tumours will undergo spontaneous regression while others show relentless progression. Around half of all cases are currently classified as high-risk for disease relapse, with overall survival rates less than 40% despite intensive multimodal therapy. This Seminar focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the biology of this complex paediatric solid tumour. We outline plans for the development of a uniform International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system, and summarise strategies for risk-based therapies. We also update readers on new discoveries related to the underlying molecular pathogenesis of this tumour, with special emphasis on advances that are translatable to the clinic. Finally, we discuss new approaches to treatment, including recently discovered molecular targets that might provide more effective treatment strategies with the potential for less toxicity.

PMID 17586306
Katherine K Matthay, Franz Blaes, Barbara Hero, Dominique Plantaz, Pedro De Alarcon, Wendy G Mitchell, Michael Pike, Vito Pistoia
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome in neuroblastoma a report from a workshop on the dancing eyes syndrome at the advances in neuroblastoma meeting in Genoa, Italy, 2004.
Cancer Lett. 2005 Oct 18;228(1-2):275-82. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2005.01.051.
Abstract/Text Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurologic syndrome that, in children, associates with neuroblastoma in more than half of the cases. The etiology of this condition is thought to be immune mediated, but, though immunosuppressive therapies may ameliorate the acute symptoms, no effective treatment to prevent the common neuropsychologic sequelae has been established. This paper summarizes the results obtained at the 2004 Advances in Neuroblastoma Research meeting, providing status of the art information on immune pathogenesis, clinical features, acute and chronic neurologic manifestations, current and novel therapeutic approaches. It is emphasized that, due to the rarity of OMS in general and neuroblastoma-associated OMS in particular, international collaborations are needed to better define the pathogenesis and therapy of this disease, propose common evaluation criteria and identify new treatment modalities.

PMID 15922508
Tom Monclair, Garrett M Brodeur, Peter F Ambros, Hervé J Brisse, Giovanni Cecchetto, Keith Holmes, Michio Kaneko, Wendy B London, Katherine K Matthay, Jed G Nuchtern, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Thorsten Simon, Susan L Cohn, Andrew D J Pearson, INRG Task Force
The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system: an INRG Task Force report.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 10;27(2):298-303. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.6876. Epub 2008 Dec 1.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification. Because the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) is a postsurgical staging system, a new clinical staging system was required for the INRG pretreatment risk classification system.
METHODS: To stage patients before any treatment, the INRG Task Force, consisting of neuroblastoma experts from Australia/New Zealand, China, Europe, Japan, and North America, developed a new INRG staging system (INRGSS) based on clinical criteria and image-defined risk factors (IDRFs). To investigate the impact of IDRFs on outcome, survival analyses were performed on 661 European patients with INSS stages 1, 2, or 3 disease for whom IDRFs were known.
RESULTS: In the INGRSS, locoregional tumors are staged L1 or L2 based on the absence or presence of one or more of 20 IDRFs, respectively. Metastatic tumors are defined as stage M, except for stage MS, in which metastases are confined to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow in children younger than 18 months of age. Within the 661-patient cohort, IDRFs were present (ie, stage L2) in 21% of patients with stage 1, 45% of patients with stage 2, and 94% of patients with stage 3 disease. Patients with INRGSS stage L2 disease had significantly lower 5-year event-free survival than those with INRGSS stage L1 disease (78% +/- 4% v 90% +/- 3%; P = .0010).
CONCLUSION: Use of the new staging (INRGSS) and risk classification (INRG) of neuroblastoma will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world.

PMID 19047290
H Shimada, S Umehara, Y Monobe, Y Hachitanda, A Nakagawa, S Goto, R B Gerbing, D O Stram, J N Lukens, K K Matthay
International neuroblastoma pathology classification for prognostic evaluation of patients with peripheral neuroblastic tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group.
Cancer. 2001 Nov 1;92(9):2451-61.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification was established in 1999 for the prognostic evaluation of patients with neuroblastic tumors (NTs).
METHODS: Pathology slides from 746 NTs (the Children's Cancer Group [CCG]-3881 and CCG-3891 studies) were evaluated according to the International Classification. First, prognostic effects of the morphologic indicators (grade of neuroblastic differentiation: undifferentiated [U], poorly differentiated [PD] and differentiating [D]; and mitosis-karyorrhexis index [MKI]: low [L-MKI], intermediate [I-MKI], and high [H-MKI]) for tumors in the neuroblastoma (NB) category were tested. Then, prognostic significance of the International Classification for all NTs in four categories (neuroblastoma [NB]; ganglioneuroblastoma, intermixed [GNBi]; ganglioneuroma [GN]; and ganglioneuroblastoma, nodular [GNBn]) was analyzed. Finally, age distribution of the patients in the four categories as well as three subtypes (based on the grade of differentiation) in the NB category was compared.
RESULTS: There were 630 NB tumors, 30 GNBi tumors, 10 GN tumors, and 76 GNBn tumors. In the NB category, prognostic effects of the indicators (three grades of differentiation and three mitosis-karyorrhexis index [MKI] classes: low [L], intermediate [I], and high [H]) were affected significantly by the age of the patients. The age-linked evaluation of the indicators according to the International Classification successfully distinguished two prognostic subgroups: the favorable histology (FH) subgroup (PD/D and L/I-MKI tumors in patients age < 1.5 years, D and L-MKI tumors in patients ages 1.5-5.0 years; 90.4% 5-year event free survival [EFS]) and the unfavorable histology (UH) subgroup (U and/or H-MKI tumors in patients of any age, PD and/or I-MKI tumors in patients ages 1.5-5.0 years, any grade of differentiation, and any MKI class in patients age > or = 5 years; 26.9% EFS) (P < 0.0001). The International Classification also distinguished the FH group (FH subgroup with NB, GNBi, and GN tumors) and the UH group (UH subgroup with NB and GNBn tumors) for all NTs (90.8% EFS and 31.2% EFS, respectively; P < 0.0001) and provided independent prognostic information on both patient age and disease stage (P < 0.0001). Among patients with FH tumors, the median ages of patients with the PD and D subtype tumors in the NB category were 0.43 years (range, 0-1.50 years) and 1.50 years (range, 0.02-4.65 years), respectively, and the median ages of patients with GNBi and GN tumors were 3.51 years (range, 0.96-14.85 years) and 4.80 years (range, 1.94-17.05 years), respectively. In contrast, patients with UH tumors generally were older when they were diagnosed, and with median ages of 2.99 years (range, 1.30-8.84 years) for patients with U subtype tumors, 2.59 years (range, 0.0-12.57 years) for patients with PD subtype tumors, 2.16 years (range, 0.35-9.90) for patients with D subtype tumors, and 3.26 years (range, 0.57-15.90 years) for patients with GNBn tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the prognostic significance of the International Classification, substantiated age-linked prognostic effects of the morphologic indicators for patients with the tumors in the NB category, and supported the concept of an age-appropriate framework of maturation for patients with the tumors in the FH group.

Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
PMID 11745303
G M Brodeur, J Pritchard, F Berthold, N L Carlsen, V Castel, R P Castelberry, B De Bernardi, A E Evans, M Favrot, F Hedborg
Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging, and response to treatment.
J Clin Oncol. 1993 Aug;11(8):1466-77.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE AND METHODS: Based on preliminary experience, there was a need for modifications and clarifications in the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) and International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC). In 1988, a proposal was made to establish an internationally accepted staging system for neuroblastoma, as well as consistent criteria for confirming the diagnosis and determining response to therapy (Brodeur GM, et al: J Clin Oncol 6:1874-1881, 1988). A meeting was held to review experience with the INSS and INRC and to revise or clarify the language and intent of the originally proposed criteria. Substantial changes included a redefinition of the midline, restrictions on age and bone marrow involvement for stage 4S, and the recommendation that meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning be implemented for evaluating the extent of disease. Other modifications and clarifications of the INSS and INRC are presented. In addition, the criteria for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma were modified. Finally, proposals were made for the development of risk groups that incorporate both clinical and biologic features in the prediction of prognosis. The biologic features that were deemed important to evaluate prospectively included serum ferritin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); tumor histology; tumor-cell DNA content; assessment of N-myc copy number; assessment of 1p deletion by cytogenetic or molecular methods; and TRK-A expression.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Modifications of the INSS and INRC made at this conference are presented. In addition, proposals are made for future modifications in these criteria and for the development of International Neuroblastoma Risk Groups.

PMID 8336186
Susan L Cohn, Andrew D J Pearson, Wendy B London, Tom Monclair, Peter F Ambros, Garrett M Brodeur, Andreas Faldum, Barbara Hero, Tomoko Iehara, David Machin, Veronique Mosseri, Thorsten Simon, Alberto Garaventa, Victoria Castel, Katherine K Matthay, INRG Task Force
The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system: an INRG Task Force report.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 10;27(2):289-97. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.6785. Epub 2008 Dec 1.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: Because current approaches to risk classification and treatment stratification for children with neuroblastoma (NB) vary greatly throughout the world, it is difficult to directly compare risk-based clinical trials. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The statistical and clinical significance of 13 potential prognostic factors were analyzed in a cohort of 8,800 children diagnosed with NB between 1990 and 2002 from North America and Australia (Children's Oncology Group), Europe (International Society of Pediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group and German Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Group), and Japan. Survival tree regression analyses using event-free survival (EFS) as the primary end point were performed to test the prognostic significance of the 13 factors.
RESULTS: Stage, age, histologic category, grade of tumor differentiation, the status of the MYCN oncogene, chromosome 11q status, and DNA ploidy were the most highly statistically significant and clinically relevant factors. A new staging system (INRG Staging System) based on clinical criteria and tumor imaging was developed for the INRG Classification System. The optimal age cutoff was determined to be between 15 and 19 months, and 18 months was selected for the classification system. Sixteen pretreatment groups were defined on the basis of clinical criteria and statistically significantly different EFS of the cohort stratified by the INRG criteria. Patients with 5-year EFS more than 85%, more than 75% to < or = 85%, > or = 50% to < or = 75%, or less than 50% were classified as very low risk, low risk, intermediate risk, or high risk, respectively.
CONCLUSION: By defining homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts, the INRG classification system will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world and the development of international collaborative studies.

PMID 19047291
S J Cotterill, A D Pearson, J Pritchard, A B Foot, B Roald, J A Kohler, J Imeson
Clinical prognostic factors in 1277 patients with neuroblastoma: results of The European Neuroblastoma Study Group 'Survey' 1982-1992.
Eur J Cancer. 2000 May;36(7):901-8.
Abstract/Text In 1982 the European Neuroblastoma Study Group (ENSG) established a prospective registry for patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma ('The ENSG Survey'). Clinical information was collected primarily to: (a) establish an ENSG database; and (b) investigate prognostic factors in neuroblastoma. This paper summarises the results of the survey. By 1992, 1277 patients with a median age of 26 months (range: 0-289 months), gender ratio of 1.19 M:F had been registered from 30 centres. The median follow-up of survivors is 9.7 years (range: 1-14 years). Overall 5-year survival (S) is 45% (95% CI 42-48%), and event-free survival (EFS) is 43% (95% CI 40-45%). For both survival and EFS the key established prognostic factors, stage and age, are highly significant (P<0.001). In particular, patients under 1 year of age at diagnosis, whatever the disease stage, had a more favourable prognosis than older patients; stage 2 (EFS 93% (95% (CI 85-97) versus 76% (95% CI 67-86), P=0.02), stage 3 (EFS 91% (95% CI 82-96) versus 52% (95% CI 44-60), P<0.001) and stage 4 (EFS 59% (95% CI 48-69) versus 16% (95% CI 13-19), P<0.001). Multivariate analysis established that the anatomical location of the primary tumour (i.e. abdominal versus other sites) and primary tumour volume also conferred a statistically significant difference. In stage 4 disease the 20% of patients without demonstrable bone marrow involvement had a more favourable prognosis than those with infiltrated marrow (EFS 36% (95% CI 13-19) versus 16% (95% CI 29-45), P<0.001). Urine catecholamine metabolite levels (raised versus normal), histology (ganglioneuroblastoma versus neuroblastoma) and gender had no significant effect on outcome after stage and age were accounted for. 5-year survival following first relapse is only 5.6% (95% CI 2.8-8.4). This ENSG Survey provides secure data for future comparisons with new prognostic factors and treatment programmes.

PMID 10785596
C A Perez, K K Matthay, J B Atkinson, R C Seeger, H Shimada, G M Haase, D O Stram, R B Gerbing, J N Lukens
Biologic variables in the outcome of stages I and II neuroblastoma treated with surgery as primary therapy: a children's cancer group study.
J Clin Oncol. 2000 Jan;18(1):18-26.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: To determine prospectively whether surgery alone is sufficient therapy for Evans stages I and II neuroblastoma and to define biologic and clinical features having prognostic potential for this group.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1989 and August 1995, 374 eligible children (age range, 0 to 18 years) with newly diagnosed stage I (n = 141) and stage II (n = 233) neuroblastoma were registered onto Children's Cancer Group trial 3881. Surgical resection was the only primary therapy except in cases with spinal cord compression, where radiation therapy was allowed. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by life-table methods according to clinical and biologic features.
RESULTS: EFS and OS (mean +/- SE) for all stage I patients were 93% +/- 3.0% and 99% +/- 1.0%, respectively, compared with 81% +/- 4.0% and 98% +/- 2. 0%, respectively, for stage II patients. The significantly higher recurrence rate among stage II patients was managed successfully in 38 of 43 children with either surgery or multimodality treatment. There was one death among stage I patients and six among stage II. For stage II patients tumor MYCN gene amplication, unfavorable histopathology, an age greater than 2 years, and positive lymph nodes predicted a lower OS (P <.05).
CONCLUSION: Children with stages I and II neuroblastoma have 98% survival with surgery alone as primary therapy. Supplemental treatment was necessary in only 10% of stage I patients and 20% of stage II patients. In children with localized neuroblastoma, a subset of patients that are at higher risk for death can be defined as those with stage II disease who have tumor MYCN amplification or who are >/= 2 years of age with either unfavorable histopathology or positive lymph nodes.

PMID 10623689
K K Matthay, C Perez, R C Seeger, G M Brodeur, H Shimada, J B Atkinson, C T Black, R Gerbing, G M Haase, D O Stram, P Swift, J N Lukens
Successful treatment of stage III neuroblastoma based on prospective biologic staging: a Children's Cancer Group study.
J Clin Oncol. 1998 Apr;16(4):1256-64.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: To identify a biologically favorable and unfavorable subset of patients with Evans stage III neuroblastoma and to determine whether treatment stratification would improve the event-free survival (EFS) for high-risk patients and maintain excellent EFS for the lower-risk patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Risk stratification was performed by age, MYCN gene copy number, Shimada histopathologic classification, and serum ferritin level. Lower-risk patients were treated on the less intensive Children's Cancer Group (CCG)-3881, whereas high-risk patients were treated on CCG-3891, which included more intensive multimodality therapy and, in some cases, autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT).
RESULTS: Of 228 Evans stage III patients entered onto the study, 92% also met the definition of International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage 3. One hundred forty-three patients met the lower-risk criteria, which included 89 patients less than 1 year of age and 54 patients 1 year of age or greater, and favorable biology, whereas 85 patients were 1 year of age or greater and biologically unfavorable. Biologically unfavorable patients 1 year of age or greater who underwent gross surgical resection had improved survival, whereas the outcome of infants or biologically favorable older patients did not change according to resection. The EFS rate at 4 years was 100% for the patients with favorable biology of any age, 90% for those less than 1 year of age but with at least one unfavorable characteristic, and 54% for Evans stage III patients 1 year of age or greater with unfavorable biology. Age, ferritin level, MYCN copy number, Shimada histopathology, primary site, and intraspinal extension were significant univariate prognostic factors for all patients, but only MYCN copy number and age were independent factors in multivariate analyses.
CONCLUSION: The excellent survival of the biologically favorable group and the historically improved EFS of the biologically unfavorable group suggest that biologic staging should be used to define the prognosis and treatment of stage III neuroblastoma.

PMID 9552023
Abstract/Text Members of children's cancer study group designed Study CCG 351 to determine whether three drug chemotherapy improved the survival experience of children with localized neuroblastoma. Patients in stages I-III were treated with surgical removal of the primary tumor and those in stages II and III received radiation therapy to the tumor bed and chemotherapy. Treatment included cyclophosphamide, imidazolecarboxamide, and vincristine given in 5-day pulses each month for 12 courses. The results were compared to those from a previous study, CCG 011, for localized neuroblastoma, in which children were randomized between a treatment regimen that included cyclophosphamide and one with no chemotherapy. There were 133 evaluable patients, subdivided as follows: stages I-26, stages II-74, and stages III-33. The 3-year life-table survival rates by stage of 96, 89 and 50% were not significantly different from the patients in CCG 011 similarly staged who received either no chemotherapy or oral CPM. These data suggest that multiagent chemotherapy, as prescribed, did not improve the outlook for children with locally advanced but nonmetastatic neuroblastoma. The staging criteria employed showed a modest difference in outcome between patients in stages I and II, but a significant poorer survival for stage III as compared to either stage I or II.

PMID 6364778
C S Alvarado, W B London, A T Look, G M Brodeur, D H Altmiller, P S Thorner, V V Joshi, S T Rowe, M B Nash, E I Smith, R P Castleberry, S L Cohn
Natural history and biology of stage A neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 May-Jun;22(3):197-205.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the outcome of patients with Stage A neuroblastoma (NB) treated with surgery alone, especially with regard to the prognostic significance of age, tumor site, MYCN copy number, tumor cell ploidy, and histology.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical course of 329 patients with Stage A disease registered on the POG NB Biology Study #9047 between February, 1990 and October, 1997 were evaluated. Age, tumor site, MYCN copy number, tumor cell ploidy, and histology were analyzed for their impact on event-free survival (EFS) and survival (S).
RESULTS: The 5-year estimated EFS and S rates for the 329 patients were 91% (+/-3%) and 96% (+/-2%), respectively. The EFS rate was similar for infants younger than 12 months and children age 12 months or older, but age older than 12 months was predictive of lower S rates (P = 0.044). Patients with adrenal, abdominal non-adrenal, thoracic, and cervical tumors had similar S rates. The majority of patients had tumors with favorable biologic features, and only 3% had MYCN amplification. For infants with diploid tumors, the EFS rate was 82% (+/-16%), but effective therapy yielded an S rate of 100%. Rate of S was 80% (+/-26%) and 64% (+/-27%) for patients with unfavorable tumor histology and MYCN-amplified tumors, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The outcome for patients with Stage A NB treated with surgery alone is excellent. Although EFS and S rates were significantly worse for patients with MYCN-amplified tumors, a subset achieved long-term remission after surgery alone. For patients with Stage A and MYCN amplification, additional factors are needed to distinguish the patients who will achieve long-term remission with surgery alone from those who will develop recurrent disease.

PMID 10864050
Bruno De Bernardi, Walentyna Balwierz, Joanna Bejent, Susan L Cohn, Maria Luisa Garrè, Tomoko Iehara, Dominique Plantaz, Thorsten Simon, Paola Angelini, Armando Cama, Wendy B London, Kim Kramer, Howard M Katzenstein, Paolo Tortori-Donati, Andrea Rossi, Giulio J D'Angio, Audrey E Evans
Epidural compression in neuroblastoma: Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.
Cancer Lett. 2005 Oct 18;228(1-2):283-99. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2005.01.053.
Abstract/Text The involvement by tumour of intervertebral foramina and the consequent invasion of the spinal space, accompanied or not by neurological symptoms, represent a well-recognised pattern of presentation of neuroblastoma. The main peculiarity of this condition stands in the fact that, in case of its late detection or inadequate treatment, severe, permanent neurological compromise may ensue. Surprisingly enough, remarkable disagreements still exist regarding its optimal treatment and the related literature provide contrasting indications at this respect. The neurosurgical and the chemotherapeutic approaches have equally convinced supporters, while the use of radiation therapy is uncommon, possibly without good reasons. This mini-review intends to report the clinical experiences of the major Paediatric Oncology Groups with the aim to collect as many data as possible in the perspective of establishing common guidelines for proper diagnosing and treatment of this important complication.

PMID 15975710
Tomoko Iehara, Akihiro Yoneda, Isao Yokota, Hideto Takahashi, Satoshi Teramukai, Takehiko Kamijyo, Atsuko Nakazawa, Tetsuya Takimoto, Atsushi Kikuta, Shigeki Yagyu, Hitoshi Ikeda, Akira Nakagawara, Tatsuro Tajiri, Japan Childhood Cancer Group Neuroblastoma Committee (JNBSG)
Results of a prospective clinical trial JN-L-10 using image-defined risk factors to inform surgical decisions for children with low-risk neuroblastoma disease: A report from the Japan Children's Cancer Group Neuroblastoma Committee.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2019 Nov;66(11):e27914. doi: 10.1002/pbc.27914. Epub 2019 Jul 24.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The present study sought to reduce the incidence of treatment complications of low-risk neuroblastoma by using image-defined risk factors (IDRFs) to inform the timing of surgical resection.
PROCEDURES: Eligible patients included children (<18 years of age) with stage 1 or 2 disease, children (<365 days of age) with stage 3 disease, and infants with stage 4S disease. In IDRF-negative cases, treatment was completed with surgical resection alone. In IDRF-positive cases, the timing of surgery was determined based on the IDRFs after low-dose chemotherapy with 2-3 of the following four drugs: vincristine, cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, and carboplatin. The outcome measures were overall survival, progression-free survival, and adverse events. This study was registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number 000004355).
RESULTS: Of the 60 patients screened between 2010 and 2013, 58 eligible patients were enrolled; 32 were identified as IDRF negative at diagnosis while 26 were identified as IDRF positive and underwent induction chemotherapy. The 3-year overall and progression-free survival rates of the 58 patients were 100% and 82.8% (95% confidence interval: 70.3-90.3), respectively. Neutropenia was the most frequently reported grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy-related form of toxicity (41.7%). With regard to surgical complications, 2.5% of all patients developed pleural effusion and ascites as early complications, while only 2.5% developed renal atrophy as a long-term complication. No fatal toxicities were observed.
CONCLUSION: Using IDRFs to inform surgical decision making for the treatment of low-risk neuroblastoma improved prognosis and reduced the incidence of long-term complications.

© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID 31342649
David L Baker, Mary L Schmidt, Susan L Cohn, John M Maris, Wendy B London, Allen Buxton, Daniel Stram, Robert P Castleberry, Hiroyuki Shimada, Anthony Sandler, Robert C Shamberger, A Thomas Look, C Patrick Reynolds, Robert C Seeger, Katherine K Matthay, Children’s Oncology Group
Outcome after reduced chemotherapy for intermediate-risk neuroblastoma.
N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 30;363(14):1313-23. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1001527.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The survival rate among patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma who receive dose-intensive chemotherapy is excellent, but the survival rate among patients who receive reduced doses of chemotherapy for shorter periods of time is not known.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective, phase 3, nonrandomized trial to determine whether a 3-year estimated overall survival of more than 90% could be maintained with reductions in the duration of therapy and drug doses, using a tumor biology-based therapy assignment. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, intermediate-risk neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification; these patients included infants (<365 days of age) who had stage 3 or 4 disease, children (≥365 days of age) who had stage 3 tumors with favorable histopathological features, and infants who had stage 4S disease with a diploid DNA index or unfavorable histopathological features. Patients who had disease with favorable histopathological features and hyperdiploidy were assigned to four cycles of chemotherapy, and those with an incomplete response or either unfavorable feature were assigned to eight cycles.
RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2005, a total of 479 eligible patients were enrolled in this trial (270 patients with stage 3 disease, 178 with stage 4 disease, and 31 with stage 4S disease). A total of 323 patients had tumors with favorable biologic features, and 141 had tumors with unfavorable biologic features. Ploidy, but not histopathological features, was significantly predictive of the outcome. Severe adverse events without disease progression occurred in 10 patients (2.1%), including secondary leukemia (in 3 patients), death from infection (in 3 patients), and death at surgery (in 4 patients). The 3-year estimate (±SE) of overall survival for the entire group was 96±1%, with an overall survival rate of 98±1% among patients who had tumors with favorable biologic features and 93±2% among patients who had tumors with unfavorable biologic features.
CONCLUSIONS: A very high rate of survival among patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma was achieved with a biologically based treatment assignment involving a substantially reduced duration of chemotherapy and reduced doses of chemotherapeutic agents as compared with the regimens used in earlier trials. These data provide support for further reduction in chemotherapy with more refined risk stratification. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00003093.)

PMID 20879880
D C West, R C Shamberger, R M Macklis, H P Kozakewich, A S Wayne, S G Kreissman, B R Korf, B Lavally, H E Grier
Stage III neuroblastoma over 1 year of age at diagnosis: improved survival with intensive multimodality therapy including multiple alkylating agents.
J Clin Oncol. 1993 Jan;11(1):84-90.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: A nonrandomized, single-arm trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of multimodality therapy including intensive chemotherapy with multiple alkylating agents in the treatment of children with Evans stage III neuroblastoma older than 1 year at diagnosis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a median age of 18 months at diagnosis were treated with multimodality therapy including surgery and chemotherapy using either nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine), doxorubicin, cisplatin, dacarbazine (DTIC), vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (MADDOC) or cisplatin and cyclophosphamide induction followed by maintenance MADDOC (induction MADDOC) protocols. Sixteen of 25 patients also received radiotherapy to the tumor bed and primary lymph nodes. Event-free survival (EFS) was compared with that reported previously in the literature. N-myc amplification was evaluated prospectively and the Shimada classification was evaluated retrospectively as potential prognostic factors.
RESULTS: We report a 72% EFS (95% confidence interval +/- 18%) with a median follow-up of 85 months. EFS was significantly worse for patients with tumors demonstrating N-myc amplification (P = .018). Patients classified as favorable according to the Shimada system experienced a significantly better EFS (P = .04), but unfavorable patients still maintained a 60% EFS.
CONCLUSION: Intensive multimodality treatment including MADDOC and induction MADDOC chemotherapy provides a very good EFS for children older than 1 year who have stage III neuroblastoma. Children classified as favorable according to the Shimada system have a better prognosis. Patients whose tumors demonstrate N-myc amplification have a poor prognosis despite therapy.

PMID 8418247
L C Bowman, R P Castleberry, A Cantor, V Joshi, S L Cohn, E I Smith, A Yu, G M Brodeur, F A Hayes, A T Look
Genetic staging of unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: a Pediatric Oncology Group study.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Mar 5;89(5):373-80.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Current staging systems for unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma do not reliably predict responses to chemotherapy in infants under 1 year of age. Previous studies have indicated that the DNA content, or ploidy, of malignant neuroblasts can discriminate between good and poor responders in this group of patients, but the clinical utility of ploidy assessment has remained in question.
PURPOSE: We tested, in a prospective nonrandomized study, the hypothesis that neuroblast ploidy could be used as the sole guide for treatment selection in infants with unresectable or metastatic tumors and could differentiate between those who would respond to our previous standard regimen and those who would benefit from an immediate switch to another therapy.
METHODS: One hundred seventy-seven infants were enrolled in this trial. Five of these infants were subsequently excluded (two ineligible, two lacking ploidy information, and one protocol violation); therefore, 172 patients were included in the study. One hundred thirty infants with hyperdiploid tumors (DNA index > 1.0; better prognosis in retrospective studies) were treated with a well-tolerated regimen of cyclophosphamide (150 mg/m2 per day orally or intravenously on days 1-7) and doxorubicin (35 mg/m2 intravenously on day 8). Forty-two infants with diploid tumors (DNA index = 1.0; worse prognosis in retrospective studies) received cisplatin (90 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1) and teniposide (100 mg/ m2 intravenously on day 3) after an initial course of cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin. Statistical end points were response and long-term survival. In addition, we assessed within each ploidy group (i.e., patients with hyperdiploid tumors and those with diploid tumors) the prognostic significance of NMYC gene copy number, tumor stage, and other variables commonly measured in this disease.
RESULTS: Of the 127 assessable infants with hyperdiploid tumors, 115 (91%) had complete responses--85 after receiving five courses of cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin and 30 after receiving further therapy including cisplatin plus teniposide. The 3-year survival estimate for the entire hyperdiploid group was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 89%-98%). Nineteen (46%) of 41 assessable infants with diploid tumors were complete responders. The overall 3-year survival estimate for this group was 55% (95% CI = 39%-70%). Prognostic factor analysis indicated that NMYC gene amplification and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level were statistically significant markers of higher risk disease within the diploid group (two-sided P values of .005 and .003, respectively). Only NMYC was predictive in the hyperdiploid group (P = .003).
CONCLUSION: Use of a prognostic staging system based on tumor cell ploidy, augmented with the NMYC gene copy number and serum level of lactate dehydrogenase, would very likely improve the treatment of infants with unresectable or metastatic neuroblastoma. Patients with diploid tumors characterized by an amplified NMYC locus represent a particularly unfavorable risk group that may benefit from innovative new therapies.

PMID 9060959
Katherine K Matthay, C Patrick Reynolds, Robert C Seeger, Hiroyuki Shimada, E Stanton Adkins, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Robert B Gerbing, Wendy B London, Judith G Villablanca
Long-term results for children with high-risk neuroblastoma treated on a randomized trial of myeloablative therapy followed by 13-cis-retinoic acid: a children's oncology group study.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1007-13. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2007.13.8925. Epub 2009 Jan 26.
Abstract/Text UNLABELLED: PURPOSE We assessed the long-term outcome of patients enrolled on CCG-3891, a high-risk neuroblastoma study in which patients were randomly assigned to undergo autologous purged bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) or to receive chemotherapy, and subsequent treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (cis-RA). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients received the same induction chemotherapy, with random assignment (N = 379) to consolidation with myeloablative chemotherapy, total-body irradiation, and ABMT versus three cycles of intensive chemotherapy. Patients who completed consolidation without disease progression were randomly assigned to receive no further therapy or cis-RA for 6 months. Results The event-free survival (EFS) for patients randomly assigned to ABMT was significantly higher than those randomly assigned to chemotherapy; the 5-year EFS (mean +/- SE) was 30% +/- 4% versus 19% +/- 3%, respectively (P = .04). The 5-year EFS (42% +/- 5% v 31% +/- 5%) from the time of second random assignment was higher for cis-RA than for no further therapy, though it was not significant. Overall survival (OS) was significantly higher for each random assignment by a test of the log(-log(.)) transformation of the survival estimates at 5 years (P < .01). The 5-year OS from the second random assignment of patients who underwent both random assignments and who were assigned to ABMT/cis-RA was 59% +/- 8%; for ABMT/no cis-RA, it was 41% +/- 8% [corrected]; for continuing chemotherapy/cis-RA, it was 38% +/- 7%; and for chemotherapy/no cis-RA, it was 36% +/- 7%.
CONCLUSION: Myeloablative therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell rescue result in significantly better 5-year EFS than nonmyeloablative chemo therapy; neither myeloablative therapy with [corrected] autologous hematopoietic cell rescue nor cis-RA given after consolidation therapy significantly improved OS.

PMID 19171716
K K Matthay, J G Villablanca, R C Seeger, D O Stram, R E Harris, N K Ramsay, P Swift, H Shimada, C T Black, G M Brodeur, R B Gerbing, C P Reynolds
Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, autologous bone marrow transplantation, and 13-cis-retinoic acid. Children's Cancer Group.
N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 14;341(16):1165-73. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199910143411601.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Children with high-risk neuroblastoma have a poor outcome. In this study, we assessed whether myeloablative therapy in conjunction with transplantation of autologous bone marrow improved event-free survival as compared with chemotherapy alone, and whether subsequent treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) further improves event-free survival.
METHODS: All patients were treated with the same initial regimen of chemotherapy, and those without disease progression were then randomly assigned to receive continued treatment with myeloablative chemotherapy, total-body irradiation, and transplantation of autologous bone marrow purged of neuroblastoma cells or to receive three cycles of intensive chemotherapy alone. All patients who completed cytotoxic therapy without disease progression were then randomly assigned to receive no further therapy or treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid for six months.
RESULTS: The mean (+/-SE) event-free survival rate three years after the first randomization was significantly better among the 189 patients who were assigned to undergo transplantation than among the 190 patients assigned to receive continuation chemotherapy (34+/-4 percent vs. 22+/-4 percent, P=0.034). The event-free survival rate three years after the second randomization was significantly better among the 130 patients who were assigned to receive 13-cis-retinoic acid than among the 128 patients assigned to receive no further therapy (46+/-6 percent vs. 29+/-5 percent, P=0.027).
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with myeloablative therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation improved event-free survival among children with high-risk neuroblastoma. In addition, treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid was beneficial for patients without progressive disease when it was administered after chemotherapy or transplantation.

PMID 10519894
R Ladenstein, U Pötschger, O Hartman, A D J Pearson, T Klingebiel, V Castel, I Yaniv, T Demirer, G Dini, EBMT Paediatric Working Party
28 years of high-dose therapy and SCT for neuroblastoma in Europe: lessons from more than 4000 procedures.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008 Jun;41 Suppl 2:S118-27. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2008.69.
Abstract/Text Between 1978 and 2006, the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registered 4098 high-dose therapy (HDT) procedures followed by stem cell rescue (SCR) (3974 autologous/124 allogeneic) in patients with neuroblastoma. The 5-year rates for overall (OS) and event-free survival are 37 and 32%, respectively. The median age at diagnosis is 3.9 years (0.3-62 years) with 76 patients older than 18 years. Patients above 10 years carry a 2.5-fold higher risk. Younger patients cure significantly (<0.001) better with OS rates of 40 and 30% for age groups 2-4 years and 4-10 years, respectively. Their risks are about twofold higher than that of patients below 2 years with OS rates of 60%. The better the quality of remission status before HDT/SCT the better are the observed OS rates: 43% in CR1 (1199 patients) and 42% for CR2 (140 patients), and 36% for those in very good partial or partial remission (1413 patients) and 21% for those with sensitive relapse (134 patients). Patients reported with stable disease in first remission still had an OS rate of 30%. Multivariate analysis shows significantly better OS in the age group of less than 2 years (<0.0001), as well as a better quality of remission status before HDT/SCT (P<0.0001), with the use of peripheral stem cells (P=0.014), autologous SCT (P=0.031) and busulphan/melphalan HDT (P<0.001). Busulphan/melphalan HDT/SCT in first remission achieves an OS of 48%, while it is only 35% with other regimens (P<0.001), including melphalan alone, other melphalan-containing regimens, a variety of other drugs given as a single HDT as well as the addition of TBI or sequential HDT/SCT procedures. Further progress in the field may only be expected from large-scale international randomized trials.

PMID 18545256
Ruth Ladenstein, Ulrike Pötschger, Andrew D J Pearson, Penelope Brock, Roberto Luksch, Victoria Castel, Isaac Yaniv, Vassilios Papadakis, Geneviève Laureys, Josef Malis, Walentyna Balwierz, Ellen Ruud, Per Kogner, Henrik Schroeder, Ana Forjaz de Lacerda, Maja Beck-Popovic, Pavel Bician, Miklós Garami, Toby Trahair, Adela Canete, Peter F Ambros, Keith Holmes, Mark Gaze, Günter Schreier, Alberto Garaventa, Gilles Vassal, Jean Michon, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, SIOP Europe Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN)
Busulfan and melphalan versus carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan as high-dose chemotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL1/SIOPEN): an international, randomised, multi-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2017 Apr;18(4):500-514. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30070-0. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: High-dose chemotherapy with haemopoietic stem-cell rescue improves event-free survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma; however, which regimen has the greatest patient benefit has not been established. We aimed to assess event-free survival after high-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan compared with carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan.
METHODS: We did an international, randomised, multi-arm, open-label, phase 3 cooperative group clinical trial of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma at 128 institutions in 18 countries that included an open-label randomised arm in which high-dose chemotherapy regimens were compared. Patients (age 1-20 years) with neuroblastoma were eligible to be randomly assigned if they had completed a multidrug induction regimen (cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and etoposide with or without topotecan, vincristine, and doxorubicin) and achieved an adequate disease response. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to busulfan and melphalan or to carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan by minimisation, balancing age at diagnosis, stage, MYCN amplification, and national cooperative clinical group between groups. The busulfan and melphalan regimen comprised oral busulfan (150 mg/m2 given on 4 days consecutively in four equal doses); after Nov 8, 2007, intravenous busulfan was given (0·8-1·2 mg/kg per dose for 16 doses according to patient weight). After 24 h, an intravenous melphalan dose (140 mg/m2) was given. Doses of busulfan and melphalan were modified according to bodyweight. The carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan regimen consisted of carboplatin continuous infusion of area under the plasma concentration-time curve 4·1 mg/mL per min per day for 4 days, etoposide continuous infusion of 338 mg/m2 per day for 4 days, and melphalan 70 mg/m2 per day for 3 days, with doses for all three drugs modified according to bodyweight and glomerular filtration rate. Stem-cell rescue was given after the last dose of high-dose chemotherapy, at least 24 h after melphalan in patients who received busulfan and melphalan and at least 72 h after carboplatin etoposide, and melphalan. All patients received subsequent local radiotherapy to the primary tumour site followed by maintenance therapy. The primary endpoint was 3-year event-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01704716, and EudraCT, number 2006-001489-17.
FINDINGS: Between June 24, 2002, and Oct 8, 2010, 1347 patients were enrolled and 676 were eligible for random allocation, 598 (88%) of whom were randomly assigned: 296 to busulfan and melphalan and 302 to carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan. Median follow-up was 7·2 years (IQR 5·3-9·2). At 3 years, 146 of 296 patients in the busulfan and melphalan group and 188 of 302 in the carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan group had an event; 3-year event-free survival was 50% (95% CI 45-56) versus 38% (32-43; p=0·0005). Nine patients in the busulfan and melphalan group and 11 in the carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan group had died without relapse by 5 years. Severe life-threatening toxicities occurred in 13 (4%) patients who received busulfan and melphalan and 29 (10%) who received carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were general condition (74 [26%] of 281 in the busulfan and melphalan group vs 103 [38%] of 270 in the carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan group), infection (55 [19%] of 283 vs 74 [27%] of 271), and stomatitis (138 [49%] of 284 vs 162 [59%] of 273); 60 (22%) of 267 patients in the busulfan and melphalan group had Bearman grades 1-3 veno-occlusive disease versus 21 (9%) of 239 in the carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan group.
INTERPRETATION: Busulfan and melphalan improved event-free survival in children with high-risk neuroblastoma with an adequate response to induction treatment and caused fewer severe adverse events than did carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan. Busulfan and melphalan should thus be considered standard high-dose chemotherapy and ongoing randomised studies will continue to aim to optimise treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma.
FUNDING: European Commission 5th Framework Grant and the St Anna Kinderkrebsforschung.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 28259608
Fumito Yamazaki, Kai Yamasaki, Chikako Kiyotani, Yoshiko Hashii, Yoko Shioda, Junichi Hara, Kimikazu Matsumoto
Thiotepa-melphalan myeloablative therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Jun;68(6):e28896. doi: 10.1002/pbc.28896. Epub 2021 Mar 31.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Appropriate high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) for high-risk neuroblastoma has not yet been established. In Japan, a unique HDC regimen that comprises two cycles of a total of 800 mg/m2 of thiotepa and a total of 280 mg/m2 of melphalan is widely utilized.
METHODS: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of this thiotepa-melphalan high-dose therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma, we reviewed the medical records of 41 patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who underwent this regimen followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue between 2002 and 2012. MYCN-amplified high-risk neuroblastomas were observed in 23 patients. All patients underwent intensive multidrug induction chemotherapy, but none underwent anti-GD2 antibody immunotherapy. The primary tumor was resected at the adequate time point.
RESULTS: The median follow-up duration for living patients was 9.2 years (range 5.5-14.0 years). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival from treatment initiation were 41.5 ± 7.7% and 56.1 ± 7.8%, respectively. The 5-year EFS of MYCN-amplified high-risk neuroblastoma patients was 60.9 ± 10.2%, which was significantly superior compared with those with MYCN-nonamplified high-risk neuroblastoma (16.7 ± 8.8%; p < .001). MYCN amplification was the most favorable prognostic factor for EFS (hazard ratio = 0.29; 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.66). Of the 41 patients, three died because of regimen-related toxicity (infection, n = 2; microangiopathy, n = 1).
CONCLUSION: The thiotepa-melphalan high-dose therapy with thiotepa and melphalan may be effective for high-risk neuroblastoma. However, this regimen is toxic and warrants special attention in clinical practice.

© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
PMID 33788375
Julie R Park, Susan G Kreissman, Wendy B London, Arlene Naranjo, Susan Lerner Cohn, Michael D Hogarty, Sheena C Tenney, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Peter John Shaw, Jacqueline M Kraveka, Stephen S Roberts, James Duncan Geiger, John J Doski, Stephan D Voss, John M Maris, Stephan A Grupp, Lisa Diller
Effect of Tandem Autologous Stem Cell Transplant vs Single Transplant on Event-Free Survival in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA. 2019 Aug 27;322(8):746-755. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.11642.
Abstract/Text Importance: Induction chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplant and subsequent antidisialoganglioside antibody immunotherapy is standard of care for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, but survival rate among these patients remains low.
Objective: To determine if tandem autologous transplant improves event-free survival (EFS) compared with single transplant.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial from November 2007 to February 2012 at 142 Children's Oncology Group centers in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Australia, and New Zealand. A total of 652 eligible patients aged 30 years or younger with protocol-defined high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled and 355 were randomized. The final date of follow-up was June 29, 2017, and the data analyses cut-off date was June 30, 2017.
Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive tandem transplant with thiotepa/cyclophosphamide followed by dose-reduced carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (n = 176) or single transplant with carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (n = 179).
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was EFS from randomization to the occurrence of the first event (relapse, progression, secondary malignancy, or death from any cause). The study was designed to test the 1-sided hypothesis of superiority of tandem transplant compared with single transplant.
Results: Among the 652 eligible patients enrolled, 297 did not undergo randomization because they were nonrandomly assigned (n = 27), ineligible for randomization (n = 62), had no therapy (n = 1), or because of physician/parent preference (n = 207). Among 355 patients randomized (median diagnosis age, 36.1 months; 152 [42.8%] female), 297 patients (83.7%) completed the study and 21 (5.9%) were lost to follow-up after completing protocol therapy. Three-year EFS from the time of randomization was 61.6% (95% CI, 54.3%-68.9%) in the tandem transplant group and 48.4% (95% CI, 41.0%-55.7%) in the single transplant group (1-sided log-rank P=.006). The median (range) duration of follow-up after randomization for 181 patients without an event was 5.6 (0.6-8.9) years. The most common significant toxicities following tandem vs single transplant were mucosal (11.7% vs 15.4%) and infectious (17.9% vs 18.3%).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients aged 30 years or younger with high-risk neuroblastoma, tandem transplant resulted in a significantly better EFS than single transplant. However, because of the low randomization rate, the findings may not be representative of all patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00567567.

PMID 31454045
Alice L Yu, Andrew L Gilman, M Fevzi Ozkaynak, Wendy B London, Susan G Kreissman, Helen X Chen, Malcolm Smith, Barry Anderson, Judith G Villablanca, Katherine K Matthay, Hiro Shimada, Stephan A Grupp, Robert Seeger, C Patrick Reynolds, Allen Buxton, Ralph A Reisfeld, Steven D Gillies, Susan L Cohn, John M Maris, Paul M Sondel, Children's Oncology Group
Anti-GD2 antibody with GM-CSF, interleukin-2, and isotretinoin for neuroblastoma.
N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 30;363(14):1324-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0911123.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Preclinical and preliminary clinical data indicate that ch14.18, a monoclonal antibody against the tumor-associated disialoganglioside GD2, has activity against neuroblastoma and that such activity is enhanced when ch14.18 is combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-2. We conducted a study to determine whether adding ch14.18, GM-CSF, and interleukin-2 to standard isotretinoin therapy after intensive multimodal therapy would improve outcomes in high-risk neuroblastoma.
METHODS: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who had a response to induction therapy and stem-cell transplantation were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive standard therapy (six cycles of isotretinoin) or immunotherapy (six cycles of isotretinoin and five concomitant cycles of ch14.18 in combination with alternating GM-CSF and interleukin-2). Event-free survival and overall survival were compared between the immunotherapy group and the standard-therapy group, on an intention-to-treat basis.
RESULTS: A total of 226 eligible patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group. In the immunotherapy group, a total of 52% of patients had pain of grade 3, 4, or 5, and 23% and 25% of patients had capillary leak syndrome and hypersensitivity reactions, respectively. With 61% of the number of expected events observed, the study met the criteria for early stopping owing to efficacy. The median duration of follow-up was 2.1 years. Immunotherapy was superior to standard therapy with regard to rates of event-free survival (66±5% vs. 46±5% at 2 years, P=0.01) and overall survival (86±4% vs. 75±5% at 2 years, P=0.02 without adjustment for interim analyses).
CONCLUSIONS: Immunotherapy with ch14.18, GM-CSF, and interleukin-2 was associated with a significantly improved outcome as compared with standard therapy in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00026312.)

PMID 20879881
Kieuhoa T Vo, Steven G DuBois, John Neuhaus, Steve E Braunstein, Brent R Weil, Arlene Naranjo, Sabine Irtan, Julia Balaguer, Katherine K Matthay
Pattern and predictors of sites of relapse in neuroblastoma: A report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) project.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2022 Feb 21;:e29616. doi: 10.1002/pbc.29616. Epub 2022 Feb 21.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: We sought to analyze biologic, clinical, and prognostic differences according to pattern of failure at the time of first relapse in neuroblastoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children <21 years diagnosed with neuroblastoma between 1989 and 2017 with known site of first relapse (isolated local vs. distant only vs. combined local and distant sites) were identified from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) database. Data were compared between sites of relapse according to clinical features, biologic features, initial treatment, time to first relapse, and overall survival (OS) from time of first relapse.
RESULTS: Pattern of first relapse among 1833 children was 19% isolated local; 65% distant only; and 16% combined sites. All evaluated clinical and biologic variables with exception of tumor diagnosis differed statistically by relapse pattern, with patients with isolated local failure having more favorable prognostic features. Patients with stage 3 disease were more likely to have isolated local failure compared to all other stages (49% vs. 16%; p < .001). OS significantly differed by relapse pattern (5-year OS ± SE): isolated local: 64% ± 3%; distant only: 23% ± 2%; and combined: 26% ± 4% (p < .001). After controlling for age, stage, and MYCN status, patients with isolated local failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-0.62; p < .001) and distant-only failure (adjusted HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45-0.71; p < .001) remained at decreased risk for death as compared to patients with combined failure.
CONCLUSION: Patients with distant-only and combined failures have a higher proportion of unfavorable clinical and biological features, and a lower survival than those with isolated local relapse.

© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
PMID 35188340
Rajen Mody, Arlene Naranjo, Collin Van Ryn, Alice L Yu, Wendy B London, Barry L Shulkin, Marguerite T Parisi, Sabah-E-Noor Servaes, Mitchell B Diccianni, Paul M Sondel, Julia G Bender, John M Maris, Julie R Park, Rochelle Bagatell
Irinotecan-temozolomide with temsirolimus or dinutuximab in children with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma (COG ANBL1221): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2017 Jul;18(7):946-957. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30355-8. Epub 2017 May 23.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma are dismal. The combination of irinotecan and temozolomide has activity in these patients, and its acceptable toxicity profile makes it an excellent backbone for study of new agents. We aimed to test the addition of temsirolimus or dinutuximab to irinotecan-temozolomide in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.
METHODS: For this open-label, randomised, phase 2 selection design trial of the Children's Oncology Group (COG; ANBL1221), patients had to have histological verification of neuroblastoma or ganglioneuroblastoma at diagnosis or have tumour cells in bone marrow with increased urinary catecholamine concentrations at diagnosis. Patients of any age were eligible at first designation of relapse or progression, or first designation of refractory disease, provided organ function requirements were met. Patients previously treated for refractory or relapsed disease were ineligible. Computer-based randomisation with sequence generation defined by permuted block randomisation (block size two) was used to randomly assign patients (1:1) to irinotecan and temozolomide plus either temsirolimus or dinutuximab, stratified by disease category, previous exposure to anti-GD2 antibody therapy, and tumour MYCN amplification status. Patients in both groups received oral temozolomide (100 mg/m2 per dose) and intravenous irinotecan (50 mg/m2 per dose) on days 1-5 of 21-day cycles. Patients in the temsirolimus group also received intravenous temsirolimus (35 mg/m2 per dose) on days 1 and 8, whereas those in the dinutuximab group received intravenous dinutuximab (17·5 mg/m2 per day or 25 mg/m2 per day) on days 2-5 plus granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (250 μg/m2 per dose) subcutaneously on days 6-12. Patients were given up to a maximum of 17 cycles of treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving an objective (complete or partial) response by central review after six cycles of treatment, analysed by intention to treat. Patients, families, and those administering treatment were aware of group assignment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01767194, and follow-up of the initial cohort is ongoing.
FINDINGS: Between Feb 22, 2013, and March 23, 2015, 36 patients from 27 COG member institutions were enrolled on this groupwide study. One patient was ineligible (alanine aminotransferase concentration was above the required range). Of the remaining 35 patients, 18 were randomly assigned to irinotecan-temozolomide-temsirolimus and 17 to irinotecan-temozolomide-dinutuximab. Median follow-up was 1·26 years (IQR 0·68-1·61) among all eligible participants. Of the 18 patients assigned to irinotecan-temozolomide-temsirolimus, one patient (6%; 95% CI 0·0-16·1) achieved a partial response. Of the 17 patients assigned to irinotecan-temozolomide-dinutuximab, nine (53%; 95% CI 29·2-76·7) had objective responses, including four partial responses and five complete responses. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events in the temsirolimus group were neutropenia (eight [44%] of 18 patients), anaemia (six [33%]), thrombocytopenia (five [28%]), increased alanine aminotransferase (five [28%]), and hypokalaemia (four [22%]). One of the 17 patients assigned to the dinutuximab group refused treatment after randomisation; the most common grade 3 or worse adverse events in the remaining 16 patients evaluable for safety were pain (seven [44%] of 16), hypokalaemia (six [38%]), neutropenia (four [25%]), thrombocytopenia (four [25%]), anaemia (four [25%]), fever and infection (four [25%]), and hypoxia (four [25%]); one patient had grade 4 hypoxia related to therapy that met protocol-defined criteria for unacceptable toxicity. No deaths attributed to protocol therapy occurred.
INTERPRETATION: Irinotecan-temozolomide-dinutuximab met protocol-defined criteria for selection as the combination meriting further study whereas irinotecan-temozolomide-temsirolimus did not. Irinotecan-temozolomide-dinutuximab shows notable anti-tumour activity in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. Further evaluation of biomarkers in a larger cohort of patients might identify those most likely to respond to this chemoimmunotherapeutic regimen.
FUNDING: National Cancer Institute.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 28549783

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