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細気管支炎(小児科)

関連論文:
img  1:  Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis.
 
著者: Lisa Hartling, Ricardo M Fernandes, Liza Bialy, Andrea Milne, David Johnson, Amy Plint, Terry P Klassen, Ben Vandermeer
雑誌名: BMJ. 2011 Apr 6;342:d1714. Epub 2011 Apr 6.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of bronchodilators and steroids, alone or combined, for the acute management of bronchiolitis in children aged less than 2 years.
DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Central, Scopus, PubMed, LILACS, IranMedEx, conference proceedings, and trial registers. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials of children aged 24 months or less with a first episode of bronchiolitis with wheezing comparing any bronchodilator or steroid, alone or combined, with placebo or another intervention (other bronchodilator, other steroid, standard care).
REVIEW METHODS: Two reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias and extracted data. Primary outcomes were selected by clinicians a priori based on clinical relevance: rate of admission for outpatients (day 1 and up to day 7) and length of stay for inpatients. Direct meta-analyses were carried out using random effects models. A mixed treatment comparison using a Bayesian network model was used to compare all interventions simultaneously.
RESULTS: 48 trials (4897 patients, 13 comparisons) were included. Risk of bias was low in 17% (n = 8), unclear in 52% (n = 25), and high in 31% (n = 15). Only adrenaline (epinephrine) reduced admissions on day 1 (compared with placebo: pooled risk ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.89; number needed to treat 15, 95% confidence interval 10 to 45 for a baseline risk of 20%; 920 patients). Unadjusted results from a single large trial with low risk of bias showed that combined dexamethasone and adrenaline reduced admissions on day 7 (risk ratio 0.65, 0.44 to 0.95; number needed to treat 11, 7 to 76 for a baseline risk of 26%; 400 patients). A mixed treatment comparison supported adrenaline alone or combined with steroids as the preferred treatments for outpatients (probability of being the best treatment based on admissions at day 1 were 45% and 39%, respectively). The incidence of reported harms did not differ. None of the interventions examined showed clear efficacy for length of stay among inpatients.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence shows the effectiveness and superiority of adrenaline for outcomes of most clinical relevance among outpatients with acute bronchiolitis, and evidence from a single precise trial for combined adrenaline and dexamethasone.

PMID 21471175  BMJ. 2011 Apr 6;342:d1714. Epub 2011 Apr 6.
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