今日の臨床サポート

卵巣癌(進行期):IIB~Ⅳ期

著者: 佐藤豊実 筑波大学医学医療系産科婦人科学

監修: 青木大輔 慶應義塾大学医学部産婦人科学教室

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2021/03/03
参考ガイドライン:
  1. 日本婦人科腫瘍学会:卵巣がん・卵管癌・腹膜癌治療ガイドライン 2020年版
患者向け説明資料

概要・推奨   

  1. 初回手術の場合、肉眼的残存腫瘍がない状態を目指した最大限の腫瘍減量手術が推奨される(推奨度1)。
  1. 初回手術で臨床的にリンパ節転移を認めない場合、後腹膜リンパ節郭清をしないことが推奨される(推奨度1
  1. 腹腔内播種を有すると考えられる場合、診断目的の腹腔鏡下手術推奨される(推奨度2)。
  1. 閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。閲覧にはご契約が必要となります。
薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
佐藤豊実 : 講演料(アストラゼネカ株式会社,バイエル薬品株式会社,第一三共株式会社),研究費・助成金など(日本医療研究開発機構),奨学(奨励)寄付など(筑波記念病院,つくばセントラル病院)[2021年]
監修:青木大輔 : 講演料(アストラゼネカ株式会社,武田薬品工業株式会社,中外製薬株式会社),研究費・助成金など(アストラゼネカ株式会社,中外製薬株式会社,インサイト・バイオサイエンシズ・ジャパン合同会社)[2021年]

改訂のポイント
  1. 卵巣がん・卵管癌・腹膜癌治療ガイドライン 2020年版に基づき以下の修正、追記を行った。
  1. 選択される術式の改訂を行った。
  1. 維持療法の改訂を行った。
  1. 診断目的の腹腔鏡下手術について追記した。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報  
  1. 卵巣悪性腫瘍の約90%を卵巣癌が占める。
  1. 卵巣癌の罹患者数は年々増加しており、現在は年間約13,000人が新規に発症している。
  1. 卵巣癌のほぼ半数がIII/IV期の進行癌である。
  1. 卵巣癌の主な組織型は高異型度漿液性癌、明細胞癌、類内膜癌、粘液性癌である。
  1. 明細胞癌、粘液性癌は化学療法低感受性で漿液性癌、類内膜癌と比較し予後不良である。
  1. 遺伝性乳癌卵巣癌症候群(HBOC)やリンチ症候群など遺伝性の発症がある。
  1. 明細胞癌と類内膜癌は子宮内膜症を発生母地とすることがある。
問診・診察のポイント  
問診のポイント:
  1. 家族歴の聴取を入念に行う。家族歴の聴取は第3度近親者までを目標とする。近親者の性別、がん発症者の発症年齢も聴取する。

これより先の閲覧には個人契約のトライアルまたはお申込みが必要です。

最新のエビデンスに基づいた二次文献データベース「今日の臨床サポート」。
常時アップデートされており、最新のエビデンスを各分野のエキスパートが豊富な図表や処方・検査例を交えて分かりやすく解説。日常臨床で遭遇するほぼ全ての症状・疾患から薬剤・検査情報まで瞬時に検索可能です。

まずは15日間無料トライアル
本サイトの知的財産権は全てエルゼビアまたはコンテンツのライセンサーに帰属します。私的利用及び別途規定されている場合を除き、本サイトの利用はいかなる許諾を与えるものでもありません。 本サイト、そのコンテンツ、製品およびサービスのご利用は、お客様ご自身の責任において行ってください。本サイトの利用に基づくいかなる損害についても、エルゼビアは一切の責任及び賠償義務を負いません。 また、本サイトの利用を以て、本サイト利用者は、本サイトの利用に基づき第三者に生じるいかなる損害についても、エルゼビアを免責することに合意したことになります。  本サイトを利用される医学・医療提供者は、独自の臨床的判断を行使するべきです。本サイト利用者の判断においてリスクを正当なものとして受け入れる用意がない限り、コンテンツにおいて提案されている検査または処置がなされるべきではありません。 医学の急速な進歩に鑑み、エルゼビアは、本サイト利用者が診断方法および投与量について、独自に検証を行うことを推奨いたします。

文献 

著者: P-E Colombo, A Mourregot, M Fabbro, M Gutowski, B Saint-Aubert, F Quenet, S Gourgou, P Rouanet
雑誌名: Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009 Feb;35(2):135-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2008.01.005. Epub 2008 Mar 4.
Abstract/Text AIMS: The standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer consists of cytoreductive surgery associated with a platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, there is still the question as to the extent and timing of the surgical debulking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the place of surgery in the therapeutic sequence.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data from all consecutive patients with stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer, operated on at our institution between 1990 and 2005. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the position of surgery in the therapeutic sequence. Patients in group 1 received initial debulking surgery. Group 2 consisted of patients having received their first debulking after initial chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Two hundred and three patients were identified and frequently underwent aggressive surgery, in particular, digestive surgery with bowel resections. Perioperative mortality and morbidity rates were low (2% and 14%, respectively) and there was no difference between the groups. Overall survival in group 1 for patients with complete cytoreduction (residual disease (RD)=0), optimal surgery (RD<1cm) or sub-optimal surgery (RD>1cm) was 50%, 30% and 14%, respectively. In group 2, overall survival following complete surgery was 30%, and no long-term survival was observed when surgery was not complete at the time of interval surgery. Survival was worse for patients who had received more than 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: This study confirms the importance of surgery in the prognosis of advanced ovarian cancer. Only the patient subgroup that underwent complete initial or interval surgery was associated with a prolonged remission. Optimal surgery with a controlled morbidity can be achieved in many cases, even if bowel resection is needed, at the time of primary debulking. In the interval cytoreductive surgery subgroup, the response to initial chemotherapy and surgery was found to be essential for prognosis.

PMID 18289825  Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009 Feb;35(2):135-43. doi: 10.1016/j・・・
著者: Eric Pujade-Lauraine, Jonathan A Ledermann, Frédéric Selle, Val Gebski, Richard T Penson, Amit M Oza, Jacob Korach, Tomasz Huzarski, Andrés Poveda, Sandro Pignata, Michael Friedlander, Nicoletta Colombo, Philipp Harter, Keiichi Fujiwara, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Susana Banerjee, Joyce Liu, Elizabeth S Lowe, Ralph Bloomfield, Patricia Pautier, SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21 investigators
雑誌名: Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):1274-1284. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30469-2. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Olaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, has previously shown efficacy in a phase 2 study when given in capsule formulation to all-comer patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed high-grade serous ovarian cancer. We aimed to confirm these findings in patients with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation using a tablet formulation of olaparib.
METHODS: This international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial evaluated olaparib tablet maintenance treatment in platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian cancer patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation who had received at least two lines of previous chemotherapy. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status at baseline of 0-1 and histologically confirmed, relapsed, high-grade serous ovarian cancer or high-grade endometrioid cancer, including primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to olaparib (300 mg in two 150 mg tablets, twice daily) or matching placebo tablets using an interactive voice and web response system. Randomisation was stratified by response to previous platinum chemotherapy (complete vs partial) and length of platinum-free interval (6-12 months vs ≥12 months) and treatment assignment was masked for patients, those giving the interventions, data collectors, and data analysers. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival and we report the primary analysis from this ongoing study. The efficacy analyses were done on the intention-to-treat population; safety analyses included patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01874353, and is ongoing and no longer recruiting patients.
FINDINGS: Between Sept 3, 2013, and Nov 21, 2014, we enrolled 295 eligible patients who were randomly assigned to receive olaparib (n=196) or placebo (n=99). One patient in the olaparib group was randomised in error and did not receive study treatment. Investigator-assessed median progression-free survival was significantly longer with olaparib (19·1 months [95% CI 16·3-25·7]) than with placebo (5·5 months [5·2-5·8]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·30 [95% CI 0·22-0·41], p<0·0001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse severity were anaemia (38 [19%] of 195 patients in the olaparib group vs two [2%] of 99 patients in the placebo group), fatigue or asthenia (eight [4%] vs two [2%]), and neutropenia (ten [5%] vs four [4%]). Serious adverse events were experienced by 35 (18%) patients in the olaparib group and eight (8%) patients in the placebo group. The most common in the olaparib group were anaemia (seven [4%] patients), abdominal pain (three [2%] patients), and intestinal obstruction (three [2%] patients). The most common in the placebo group were constipation (two [2%] patients) and intestinal obstruction (two [2%] patients). One (1%) patient in the olaparib group had a treatment-related adverse event (acute myeloid leukaemia) with an outcome of death.
INTERPRETATION: Olaparib tablet maintenance treatment provided a significant progression-free survival improvement with no detrimental effect on quality of life in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation. Apart from anaemia, toxicities with olaparib were low grade and manageable.
FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 28754483  Lancet Oncol. 2017 Sep;18(9):1274-1284. doi: 10.1016/S1・・・
著者: Philipp Harter, Jalid Sehouli, Domenica Lorusso, Alexander Reuss, Ignace Vergote, Christian Marth, Jae-Weon Kim, Francesco Raspagliesi, Björn Lampe, Giovanni Aletti, Werner Meier, David Cibula, Alexander Mustea, Sven Mahner, Ingo B Runnebaum, Barbara Schmalfeldt, Alexander Burges, Rainer Kimmig, Giovanni Scambia, Stefano Greggi, Felix Hilpert, Annette Hasenburg, Peter Hillemanns, Giorgio Giorda, Ingo von Leffern, Carmen Schade-Brittinger, Uwe Wagner, Andreas du Bois
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 28;380(9):822-832. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1808424.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy has been widely used in the surgical treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, although supporting evidence from randomized clinical trials has been limited.
METHODS: We intraoperatively randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB through IV) who had undergone macroscopically complete resection and had normal lymph nodes both before and during surgery to either undergo or not undergo lymphadenectomy. All centers had to qualify with regard to surgical skills before participation in the trial. The primary end point was overall survival.
RESULTS: A total of 647 patients underwent randomization from December 2008 through January 2012, were assigned to undergo lymphadenectomy (323 patients) or not undergo lymphadenectomy (324), and were included in the analysis. Among patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, the median number of removed nodes was 57 (35 pelvic and 22 paraaortic nodes). The median overall survival was 69.2 months in the no-lymphadenectomy group and 65.5 months in the lymphadenectomy group (hazard ratio for death in the lymphadenectomy group, 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.34; P = 0.65), and median progression-free survival was 25.5 months in both groups (hazard ratio for progression or death in the lymphadenectomy group, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.34; P = 0.29). Serious postoperative complications occurred more frequently in the lymphadenectomy group (e.g., incidence of repeat laparotomy, 12.4% vs. 6.5% [P = 0.01]; mortality within 60 days after surgery, 3.1% vs. 0.9% [P = 0.049]).
CONCLUSIONS: Systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer who had undergone intraabdominal macroscopically complete resection and had normal lymph nodes both before and during surgery was not associated with longer overall or progression-free survival than no lymphadenectomy and was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative complications. (Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Austrian Science Fund; LION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00712218.).

Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society.
PMID 30811909  N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 28;380(9):822-832. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: Antonio González-Martín, Bhavana Pothuri, Ignace Vergote, René DePont Christensen, Whitney Graybill, Mansoor R Mirza, Colleen McCormick, Domenica Lorusso, Paul Hoskins, Gilles Freyer, Klaus Baumann, Kris Jardon, Andrés Redondo, Richard G Moore, Christof Vulsteke, Roisin E O'Cearbhaill, Bente Lund, Floor Backes, Pilar Barretina-Ginesta, Ashley F Haggerty, Maria J Rubio-Pérez, Mark S Shahin, Giorgia Mangili, William H Bradley, Ilan Bruchim, Kaiming Sun, Izabela A Malinowska, Yong Li, Divya Gupta, Bradley J Monk, PRIMA/ENGOT-OV26/GOG-3012 Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 19;381(25):2391-2402. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1910962. Epub 2019 Sep 28.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Niraparib, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP), has been associated with significantly increased progression-free survival among patients with recurrent ovarian cancer after platinum-based chemotherapy, regardless of the presence or absence of BRCA mutations. The efficacy of niraparib in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer after a response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy is unknown.
METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib or placebo once daily after a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival in patients who had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency and in those in the overall population, as determined on hierarchical testing. A prespecified interim analysis for overall survival was conducted at the time of the primary analysis of progression-free survival.
RESULTS: Of the 733 patients who underwent randomization, 373 (50.9%) had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency. Among the patients in this category, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the niraparib group than in the placebo group (21.9 months vs. 10.4 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.59; P<0.001). In the overall population, the corresponding progression-free survival was 13.8 months and 8.2 months (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.76; P<0.001). At the 24-month interim analysis, the rate of overall survival was 84% in the niraparib group and 77% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.11). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were anemia (in 31.0% of the patients), thrombocytopenia (in 28.7%), and neutropenia (in 12.8%). No treatment-related deaths occurred.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer who had a response to platinum-based chemotherapy, those who received niraparib had significantly longer progression-free survival than those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of homologous-recombination deficiency. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; PRIMA/ENGOT-OV26/GOG-3012 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02655016.).

Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society.
PMID 31562799  N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 19;381(25):2391-2402. doi: 10.10・・・
著者: Kathleen Moore, Nicoletta Colombo, Giovanni Scambia, Byoung-Gie Kim, Ana Oaknin, Michael Friedlander, Alla Lisyanskaya, Anne Floquet, Alexandra Leary, Gabe S Sonke, Charlie Gourley, Susana Banerjee, Amit Oza, Antonio González-Martín, Carol Aghajanian, William Bradley, Cara Mathews, Joyce Liu, Elizabeth S Lowe, Ralph Bloomfield, Paul DiSilvestro
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2018 Dec 27;379(26):2495-2505. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1810858. Epub 2018 Oct 21.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Most women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer have a relapse within 3 years after standard treatment with surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. The benefit of the oral poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in relapsed disease has been well established, but the benefit of olaparib as maintenance therapy in newly diagnosed disease is uncertain.
METHODS: We conducted an international, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of olaparib as maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed advanced (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III or IV) high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer, or fallopian-tube cancer (or a combination thereof) with a mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, or both ( BRCA1/2) who had a complete or partial clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy. The patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg twice daily) or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival.
RESULTS: Of the 391 patients who underwent randomization, 260 were assigned to receive olaparib and 131 to receive placebo. A total of 388 patients had a centrally confirmed germline BRCA1/2 mutation, and 2 patients had a centrally confirmed somatic BRCA1/2 mutation. After a median follow-up of 41 months, the risk of disease progression or death was 70% lower with olaparib than with placebo (Kaplan-Meier estimate of the rate of freedom from disease progression and from death at 3 years, 60% vs. 27%; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.41; P<0.001). Adverse events were consistent with the known toxic effects of olaparib.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of maintenance therapy with olaparib provided a substantial benefit with regard to progression-free survival among women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation, with a 70% lower risk of disease progression or death with olaparib than with placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Merck; SOLO1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844986 .).

PMID 30345884  N Engl J Med. 2018 Dec 27;379(26):2495-2505. doi: 10.10・・・
著者: Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Patricia Pautier, Sandro Pignata, David Pérol, Antonio González-Martín, Regina Berger, Keiichi Fujiwara, Ignace Vergote, Nicoletta Colombo, Johanna Mäenpää, Frédéric Selle, Jalid Sehouli, Domenica Lorusso, Eva M Guerra Alía, Alexander Reinthaller, Shoji Nagao, Claudia Lefeuvre-Plesse, Ulrich Canzler, Giovanni Scambia, Alain Lortholary, Frederik Marmé, Pierre Combe, Nikolaus de Gregorio, Manuel Rodrigues, Paul Buderath, Coraline Dubot, Alexander Burges, Benoît You, Eric Pujade-Lauraine, Philipp Harter, PAOLA-1 Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 19;381(25):2416-2428. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1911361.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Olaparib has shown significant clinical benefit as maintenance therapy in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer with a BRCA mutation. The effect of combining maintenance olaparib and bevacizumab in patients regardless of BRCA mutation status is unknown.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, international phase 3 trial. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, advanced, high-grade ovarian cancer and were having a response after first-line platinum-taxane chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Patients were eligible regardless of surgical outcome or BRCA mutation status. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg twice daily) or placebo for up to 24 months; all the patients received bevacizumab at a dose of 15 mg per kilogram of body weight every 3 weeks for up to 15 months in total. The primary end point was the time from randomization until investigator-assessed disease progression or death.
RESULTS: Of the 806 patients who underwent randomization, 537 were assigned to receive olaparib and 269 to receive placebo. After a median follow-up of 22.9 months, the median progression-free survival was 22.1 months with olaparib plus bevacizumab and 16.6 months with placebo plus bevacizumab (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 0.72; P<0.001). The hazard ratio (olaparib group vs. placebo group) for disease progression or death was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.45) in patients with tumors positive for homologous-recombination deficiency (HRD), including tumors that had BRCA mutations (median progression-free survival, 37.2 vs. 17.7 months), and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.66) in patients with HRD-positive tumors that did not have BRCA mutations (median progression-free survival, 28.1 vs. 16.6 months). Adverse events were consistent with the established safety profiles of olaparib and bevacizumab.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced ovarian cancer receiving first-line standard therapy including bevacizumab, the addition of maintenance olaparib provided a significant progression-free survival benefit, which was substantial in patients with HRD-positive tumors, including those without a BRCA mutation. (Funded by ARCAGY Research and others; PAOLA-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477644.).

Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society.
PMID 31851799  N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 19;381(25):2416-2428. doi: 10.10・・・
著者: Gordon J S Rustin, Maria E L van der Burg, Clare L Griffin, David Guthrie, Alan Lamont, Gordon C Jayson, Gunnar Kristensen, César Mediola, Corneel Coens, Wendi Qian, Mahesh K B Parmar, Ann Marie Swart, MRC OV05, EORTC 55955 investigators
雑誌名: Lancet. 2010 Oct 2;376(9747):1155-63. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61268-8.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Serum CA125 concentration often rises several months before clinical or symptomatic relapse in women with ovarian cancer. In the MRC OV05/EORTC 55955 collaborative trial, we aimed to establish the benefits of early treatment on the basis of increased CA125 concentrations compared with delayed treatment on the basis of clinical recurrence.
METHODS: Women with ovarian cancer in complete remission after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and a normal CA125 concentration were registered for this randomised controlled trial. Clinical examination and CA125 measurement were done every 3 months. Patients and investigators were masked to CA125 results, which were monitored by coordinating centres. If CA125 concentration exceeded twice the upper limit of normal, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation to early or delayed chemotherapy. Patients and clinical sites were informed of allocation to early treatment, and treatment was started as soon as possible within 28 days of the increased CA125 measurement. Patients assigned to delayed treatment continued masked CA125 measurements, with treatment commencing at clinical or symptomatic relapse. All patients were treated according to standard local practice. The primary outcome was overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, ISRCTN87786644.
FINDINGS: 1442 patients were registered for the trial, of whom 529 were randomly assigned to treatment groups and were included in our analysis (265 early, 264 delayed). With a median follow-up of 56·9 months (IQR 37·4-81·8) from randomisation and 370 deaths (186 early, 184 delayed), there was no evidence of a difference in overall survival between early and delayed treatment (HR 0·98, 95% CI 0·80-1·20, p=0·85). Median survival from randomisation was 25·7 months (95% CI 23·0-27·9) for patients on early treatment and 27·1 months (22·8-30·9) for those on delayed treatment.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings showed no evidence of a survival benefit with early treatment of relapse on the basis of a raised CA125 concentration alone, and therefore the value of routine measurement of CA125 in the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer who attain a complete response after first-line treatment is not proven.
FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 20888993  Lancet. 2010 Oct 2;376(9747):1155-63. doi: 10.1016/S014・・・
著者: Takeo Minaguchi, Toyomi Satoh, Koji Matsumoto, Manabu Sakurai, Hiroyuki Ochi, Mamiko Onuki, Akinori Oki, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa
雑誌名: Int J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jun;21(3):573-9. doi: 10.1007/s10147-015-0910-8. Epub 2015 Oct 16.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The selection criteria for secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) in recurrent ovarian cancer are yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to propose the selection criteria through identifying predictive factors for successful SCS.
METHODS: All patients who underwent SCS for recurrent epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers between 1982 and 2012 at our institution were identified through our database. Potential prognostic factors were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Survival after SCS was examined by the grouping model based on the number of prognostic factors.
RESULTS: We performed SCS in 80 consecutive patients, 48 (60 %) of whom achieved complete resection. Complete/incomplete resection significantly influenced survival (median 65 vs. 26 months; p = 0.0005). Among favorable prognostic factors determined before SCS, treatment-free interval >12 months, absent distant metastasis, solitary disease, and performance status 0 were independently associated with better survival (p = 0.0009, 0.00003, 0.0004, and 0.015, respectively). Patients with 3-4 of those factors had better survival than those with 2 or 0-1 factors (median 79, 26, and 19 months; p < 0.00001 and <0.0000000001, respectively). Complete resection of visible tumors was achieved in 79 % of patients with 3-4 factors, in 40 % of those with 2 factors, and in 33 % of those with 0-1 factor. Importantly, even when tumor removal was incomplete at SCS, median survival of patients with 3-4 factors was still quite favorable (83 vs. 67.5 months for complete/incomplete resection, respectively), while those of patients with 2 factors (41 vs. 25 months) and 0-1 factor (19 vs. 19 months) were not.
CONCLUSION: We strongly recommend SCS for patients with 3-4 of the above favorable factors at recurrence. As for patients with 2 factors, SCS may be considered if complete resection is expected to be achieved. Prospective studies are warranted to validate our proposal.

PMID 26475355  Int J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jun;21(3):573-9. doi: 10.1007/s1・・・
著者: Jonathan Ledermann, Philipp Harter, Charlie Gourley, Michael Friedlander, Ignace Vergote, Gordon Rustin, Clare Scott, Werner Meier, Ronnie Shapira-Frommer, Tamar Safra, Daniela Matei, Euan Macpherson, Claire Watkins, James Carmichael, Ursula Matulonis
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 12;366(15):1382-92. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1105535. Epub 2012 Mar 27.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Olaparib (AZD2281) is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that has shown antitumor activity in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer with or without BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study to evaluate maintenance treatment with olaparib in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed, high-grade serous ovarian cancer who had received two or more platinum-based regimens and had had a partial or complete response to their most recent platinum-based regimen. Patients were randomly assigned to receive olaparib, at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines.
RESULTS: Of 265 patients who underwent randomization, 136 were assigned to the olaparib group and 129 to the placebo group. Progression-free survival was significantly longer with olaparib than with placebo (median, 8.4 months vs. 4.8 months from randomization on completion of chemotherapy; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.49; P<0.001). Subgroup analyses of progression-free survival showed that, regardless of subgroup, patients in the olaparib group had a lower risk of progression. Adverse events more commonly reported in the olaparib group than in the placebo group (by more than 10% of patients) were nausea (68% vs. 35%), fatigue (49% vs. 38%), vomiting (32% vs. 14%), and anemia (17% vs. 5%); the majority of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. An interim analysis of overall survival (38% maturity, meaning that 38% of the patients had died) showed no significant difference between groups (hazard ratio with olaparib, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.39; P=0.75).
CONCLUSIONS: Olaparib as maintenance treatment significantly improved progression-free survival among patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Interim analysis showed no overall survival benefit. The toxicity profile of olaparib in this population was consistent with that in previous studies. (Funded by AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00753545.).

PMID 22452356  N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 12;366(15):1382-92. doi: 10.1056・・・
著者: Mansoor R Mirza, Bradley J Monk, Jørn Herrstedt, Amit M Oza, Sven Mahner, Andrés Redondo, Michel Fabbro, Jonathan A Ledermann, Domenica Lorusso, Ignace Vergote, Noa E Ben-Baruch, Christian Marth, Radosław Mądry, René D Christensen, Jonathan S Berek, Anne Dørum, Anna V Tinker, Andreas du Bois, Antonio González-Martín, Philippe Follana, Benedict Benigno, Per Rosenberg, Lucy Gilbert, Bobbie J Rimel, Joseph Buscema, John P Balser, Shefali Agarwal, Ursula A Matulonis, ENGOT-OV16/NOVA Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 1;375(22):2154-2164. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1611310. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Niraparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1/2 inhibitor that has shown clinical activity in patients with ovarian cancer. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib versus placebo as maintenance treatment for patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer.
METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, patients were categorized according to the presence or absence of a germline BRCA mutation (gBRCA cohort and non-gBRCA cohort) and the type of non-gBRCA mutation and were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib (300 mg) or placebo once daily. The primary end point was progression-free survival.
RESULTS: Of 553 enrolled patients, 203 were in the gBRCA cohort (with 138 assigned to niraparib and 65 to placebo), and 350 patients were in the non-gBRCA cohort (with 234 assigned to niraparib and 116 to placebo). Patients in the niraparib group had a significantly longer median duration of progression-free survival than did those in the placebo group, including 21.0 vs. 5.5 months in the gBRCA cohort (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.41), as compared with 12.9 months vs. 3.8 months in the non-gBRCA cohort for patients who had tumors with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.59) and 9.3 months vs. 3.9 months in the overall non-gBRCA cohort (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.61; P<0.001 for all three comparisons). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were reported in the niraparib group were thrombocytopenia (in 33.8%), anemia (in 25.3%), and neutropenia (in 19.6%), which were managed with dose modifications.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer, the median duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer among those receiving niraparib than among those receiving placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of gBRCA mutations or HRD status, with moderate bone marrow toxicity. (Funded by Tesaro; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01847274 .).

PMID 27717299  N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 1;375(22):2154-2164. doi: 10.105・・・
著者: Kathleen N Moore, Angeles Alvarez Secord, Melissa A Geller, David Scott Miller, Noelle Cloven, Gini F Fleming, Andrea E Wahner Hendrickson, Masoud Azodi, Paul DiSilvestro, Amit M Oza, Mihaela Cristea, Jonathan S Berek, John K Chan, Bobbie J Rimel, Daniela E Matei, Yong Li, Kaiming Sun, Katarina Luptakova, Ursula A Matulonis, Bradley J Monk
雑誌名: Lancet Oncol. 2019 May;20(5):636-648. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30029-4. Epub 2019 Apr 1.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Late-line treatment options for patients with ovarian cancer are few, with the proportion of patients achieving an overall response typically less than 10%, and median overall survival after third-line therapy of 5-9 months. In this study (QUADRA), we investigated the activity of niraparib monotherapy as the fourth or later line of therapy.
METHODS: QUADRA was a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study that evaluated the safety and activity of niraparib in adult patients (≥18 years) with relapsed, high-grade serous (grade 2 or 3) epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who had been treated with three or more previous chemotherapy regimens. The study was done in the USA and Canada, and 56 sites screened patients (50 sites treated at least one patient). Patients received oral niraparib 300 mg once daily continuously, beginning on day 1 and every cycle (28 days) thereafter until disease progression. The primary objective was the proportion of patients achieving an investigator-assessed confirmed overall response in patients with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)-positive tumours (including patients with BRCA and without BRCA mutations) sensitive to their last platinum-based therapy who had received three or four previous anticancer therapy regimens (primary efficacy population). Efficacy analyses were additionally done in all dosed patients with measurable disease at baseline.
FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2015 and Nov 1, 2017, we screened 729 patients for eligibility and enrolled 463 patients, who were initiated on niraparib therapy. At the time of database lock (April 11, 2018), enrolment had closed and the study was ongoing, with 21 patients still on treatment. Patients had received a median of four (IQR 3-5) previous lines of therapy, and the median follow-up for overall survival was 12·2 months (IQR 3·7-22·1). 151 (33%) of 463 patients were resistant and 161 (35%) of 463 patients were refractory to the last administered platinum therapy. 13 (28%) of 47 patients in the primary efficacy population achieved an overall response according to RECIST (95% CI 15·6-42·6; one-sided p=0·00053). The most common drug-related grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (113 [24%] of 463 patients) and thrombocytopenia (95 [21%] of 463 patients). The most common treatment-emergent serious adverse events were small intestinal obstruction (34 [7%] of 463 patients), thrombocytopenia (34 [7%] of 463 patients), and vomiting (27 [6%] of 463 patients). One death due to gastric haemorrhage was considered treatment related.
INTERPRETATION: We observed clinically relevant activity of niraparib among women with heavily pretreated ovarian cancer, especially in patients with HRD-positive platinum-sensitive disease, which includes not only patients with a BRCA mutation but also a population with BRCA wild-type disease. We identified no new safety signals. Our data support expansion of the treatment indication for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors to include patients with HRD-positive ovarian cancer beyond those with BRCA mutations.
FUNDING: Tesaro.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID 30948273  Lancet Oncol. 2019 May;20(5):636-648. doi: 10.1016/S147・・・
著者: Dung T Le, Jennifer N Durham, Kellie N Smith, Hao Wang, Bjarne R Bartlett, Laveet K Aulakh, Steve Lu, Holly Kemberling, Cara Wilt, Brandon S Luber, Fay Wong, Nilofer S Azad, Agnieszka A Rucki, Dan Laheru, Ross Donehower, Atif Zaheer, George A Fisher, Todd S Crocenzi, James J Lee, Tim F Greten, Austin G Duffy, Kristen K Ciombor, Aleksandra D Eyring, Bao H Lam, Andrew Joe, S Peter Kang, Matthias Holdhoff, Ludmila Danilova, Leslie Cope, Christian Meyer, Shibin Zhou, Richard M Goldberg, Deborah K Armstrong, Katherine M Bever, Amanda N Fader, Janis Taube, Franck Housseau, David Spetzler, Nianqing Xiao, Drew M Pardoll, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Kenneth W Kinzler, James R Eshleman, Bert Vogelstein, Robert A Anders, Luis A Diaz
雑誌名: Science. 2017 Jul 28;357(6349):409-413. doi: 10.1126/science.aan6733. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
Abstract/Text The genomes of cancers deficient in mismatch repair contain exceptionally high numbers of somatic mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we previously showed that colorectal cancers with mismatch repair deficiency were sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade with antibodies to programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1). We have now expanded this study to evaluate the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced mismatch repair-deficient cancers across 12 different tumor types. Objective radiographic responses were observed in 53% of patients, and complete responses were achieved in 21% of patients. Responses were durable, with median progression-free survival and overall survival still not reached. Functional analysis in a responding patient demonstrated rapid in vivo expansion of neoantigen-specific T cell clones that were reactive to mutant neopeptides found in the tumor. These data support the hypothesis that the large proportion of mutant neoantigens in mismatch repair-deficient cancers make them sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade, regardless of the cancers' tissue of origin.

Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
PMID 28596308  Science. 2017 Jul 28;357(6349):409-413. doi: 10.1126/sc・・・
著者: Robert A Burger, Mark F Brady, Michael A Bookman, Gini F Fleming, Bradley J Monk, Helen Huang, Robert S Mannel, Howard D Homesley, Jeffrey Fowler, Benjamin E Greer, Matthew Boente, Michael J Birrer, Sharon X Liang, Gynecologic Oncology Group
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 29;365(26):2473-83. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1104390.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor is a key promoter of angiogenesis and disease progression in epithelial ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, has shown single-agent activity in women with recurrent tumors. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the addition of bevacizumab to standard front-line therapy.
METHODS: In our double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned eligible patients with newly diagnosed stage III (incompletely resectable) or stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer who had undergone debulking surgery to receive one of three treatments. All three included chemotherapy consisting of intravenous paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg per square meter of body-surface area, plus carboplatin at an area under the curve of 6, for cycles 1 through 6, plus a study treatment for cycles 2 through 22, each cycle of 3 weeks' duration. The control treatment was chemotherapy with placebo added in cycles 2 through 22; bevacizumab-initiation treatment was chemotherapy with bevacizumab (15 mg per kilogram of body weight) added in cycles 2 through 6 and placebo added in cycles 7 through 22. Bevacizumab-throughout treatment was chemotherapy with bevacizumab added in cycles 2 through 22. The primary end point was progression-free survival.
RESULTS: Overall, 1873 women were enrolled. The median progression-free survival was 10.3 months in the control group, 11.2 in the bevacizumab-initiation group, and 14.1 in the bevacizumab-throughout group. Relative to control treatment, the hazard ratio for progression or death was 0.908 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.795 to 1.040; P=0.16) with bevacizumab initiation and 0.717 (95% CI, 0.625 to 0.824; P<0.001) with bevacizumab throughout. At the time of analysis, 76.3% of patients were alive, with no significant differences in overall survival among the three groups. The rate of hypertension requiring medical therapy was higher in the bevacizumab-initiation group (16.5%) and the bevacizumab-throughout group (22.9%) than in the control group (7.2%). Gastrointestinal-wall disruption requiring medical intervention occurred in 1.2%, 2.8%, and 2.6% of patients in the control group, the bevacizumab-initiation group, and the bevacizumab-throughout group, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of bevacizumab during and up to 10 months after carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy prolongs the median progression-free survival by about 4 months in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00262847.).

PMID 22204724  N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 29;365(26):2473-83. doi: 10.1056・・・
著者: Takashi Onda, Koji Matsumoto, Taro Shibata, Akihiro Sato, Haruhiko Fukuda, Ikuo Konishi, Toshiharu Kamura, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Japan Clinical Oncology Group
雑誌名: Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan;38(1):74-7. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hym145.
Abstract/Text On the basis of promising results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in our previous study (JCOG0206), we have been performing a Phase III study of treatment starting with NAC versus standard treatment starting with primary debulking surgery (PDS) for Stage III/IV müllerian carcinomas (ovarian, tubal and peritoneal carcinomas) since November 2006. The purposes are to prove the non-inferiority of the efficacy and to show the decrease in adverse effects resulting from reduced surgical invasiveness of treatment starting with NAC. Three hundred patients with advanced müllerian carcinomas will be randomized during 3 years. NAC arm patients undergo four cycles of NAC with paclitaxel plus carboplatin followed by interval debulking surgery and an additional four cycles of postsurgical chemotherapy. Standard arm patients undergo PDS and eight cycles of postsurgical chemotherapy with or without interval debulking surgery. The primary endpoint is overall survival. The major secondary endpoints are the incidence of adverse events and parameters representing surgical invasiveness.

PMID 18258715  Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan;38(1):74-7. doi: 10.1093/jjc・・・
著者: Noriyuki Katsumata, Makoto Yasuda, Fumiaki Takahashi, Seiji Isonishi, Toshiko Jobo, Daisuke Aoki, Hiroshi Tsuda, Toru Sugiyama, Shoji Kodama, Eizo Kimura, Kazunori Ochiai, Kiichiro Noda, Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group
雑誌名: Lancet. 2009 Oct 17;374(9698):1331-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61157-0. Epub 2009 Sep 18.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel and carboplatin given every 3 weeks is standard treatment for advanced ovarian carcinoma. Attempts to improve patient survival by including other drugs have yielded disappointing results. We compared a conventional regimen of paclitaxel and carboplatin with a dose-dense weekly regimen in women with advanced ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Patients with stage II to IV epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, or primary peritoneal cancer were eligible for enrolment in this phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial at 85 centres in Japan. Patients were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive six cycles of either paclitaxel (180 mg/m(2); 3-h intravenous infusion) plus carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] 6 mg/mL per min), given on day 1 of a 21-day cycle (conventional regimen; n=320), or dose-dense paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2); 1-h intravenous infusion) given on days 1, 8, and 15 plus carboplatin given on day 1 of a 21-day cycle (dose-dense regimen; n=317). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00226915.
FINDINGS: 631 of the 637 enrolled patients were eligible for treatment and were included in the ITT population (dose-dense regimen, n=312; conventional regimen, n=319). Median progression-free survival was longer in the dose-dense treatment group (28.0 months, 95% CI 22.3-35.4) than in the conventional treatment group (17.2 months, 15.7-21.1; hazard ratio [HR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.58-0.88; p=0.0015). Overall survival at 3 years was higher in the dose-dense regimen group (72.1%) than in the conventional treatment group (65.1%; HR 0.75, 0.57-0.98; p=0.03). 165 patients assigned to the dose-dense regimen and 117 assigned to the conventional regimen discontinued treatment early. Reasons for participant dropout were balanced between the groups, apart from withdrawal because of toxicity, which was higher in the dose-dense regimen group than in the conventional regimen group (n=113 vs n=69). The most common adverse event was neutropenia (dose-dense regimen, 286 [92%] of 312; conventional regimen, 276 [88%] of 314). The frequency of grade 3 and 4 anaemia was higher in the dose-dense treatment group (214 [69%]) than in the conventional treatment group (137 [44%]; p<0.0001). The frequencies of other toxic effects were similar between groups.
INTERPRETATION: Dose-dense weekly paclitaxel plus carboplatin improved survival compared with the conventional regimen and represents a new treatment option in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

PMID 19767092  Lancet. 2009 Oct 17;374(9698):1331-8. doi: 10.1016/S014・・・

ページ上部に戻る

戻る

さらなるご利用にはご登録が必要です。

こちらよりご契約または優待日間無料トライアルお申込みをお願いします。

(※トライアルご登録は1名様につき、一度となります)


ご契約の場合はご招待された方だけのご優待特典があります。

以下の優待コードを入力いただくと、

契約期間が通常12ヵ月のところ、14ヵ月ご利用いただけます。

優待コード: (利用期限:まで)

ご契約はこちらから