今日の臨床サポート

アジソン病、副腎クリーゼ

著者: 柳瀬敏彦 誠和会牟田病院

監修: 平田結喜緒 公益財団法人 兵庫県予防医学協会 健康ライフプラザ

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2020/11/19
参考ガイドライン:
患者向け説明資料

概要・推奨   

  1. 健常人における1日の生理的なコルチゾール分泌量は9~11 mg/m2 であり、ハイドロコルチゾン(HC)補充療法において、この値を参考にすることが推奨される(推奨度2)
  1. アジソン病におけるHCの補充は可能な限り至適補充量が推奨される(推奨度2)
  1. アジソン病では、骨量維持の観点から、至適量のGC補充が推奨される(推奨度2)
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薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
柳瀬敏彦 : 特に申告事項無し[2021年]
監修:平田結喜緒 : 特に申告事項無し[2021年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. 定期レビューを行い、表現方法を若干修正した。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報(疫学・病態)  
  1. アジソン病は、副腎に病変が原発する慢性副腎皮質機能低下症の病態である。
  1. 副腎皮質が通常、後天的に炎症、腫瘍、自己免疫、出血などによって、90%以上破壊されると起こり、副腎結核と自己免疫機序(特発性副腎萎縮)が大部分を占める。狭義にはアジソン病に含めないが、小児では先天性副腎低形成、先天性副腎皮質刺激ホルモン(ACTH)不応症などの先天的な成因によって原発性副腎皮質機能低下症が起こる。その臨床像はコルチゾール、アルドステロン、副腎アンドロゲンの総合的な脱落症状を呈する。なお、先天性副腎過形成(副腎ステロイド酵素欠損症)でも起こり得るが、コルチゾール低下以外のステロイド産生プロフィールは、病型によって異なる。
  1. 自覚症状として易疲労感、食欲不振、体重減少、低血糖、低血圧、関節痛などがある。また、ACTHの高値により多くの症例で色素沈着を来すが、部分的アジソン病では必ずしも認めない場合がある。女性では副腎アンドロゲンの低下は性毛(腋毛、恥毛)の脱落として自覚される。
  1. 一般検査所見では、低血糖、低Na血症、高K血症、貧血、低コレステロール血症、末梢血好酸球増多などを来す。
  1. 診断は、血中コルチゾール基礎値や尿中遊離コルチゾール値の低下、血中ACTH高値を確認すると同時に、ACTH刺激試験によりコルチゾール分泌予備能の低下を確認し、確定診断とする。
  1. 慢性副腎皮質機能低下症のディシジョンツリー:図アルゴリズム
  1. アジソン病は指定難病であり、重症度分類を使用し①血中コルチゾールの低下を認める、②負荷試験への反応性低下、③何らかの副腎不全症状がある、④ステロイドを定期的に補充している場合――などは、申請し認定されると保険料の自己負担分の一部が公費負担として助成される。([平成27年1月施行])
  1.  難病法に基づく医療費助成制度 
 
重症度分類
日常生活が障害されており、かつ以下の4項目のうち、少なくとも1項目以上を満たすものを対象とする。
1)「血中コルチゾールの低下を認める」
血中コルチゾール基礎値4μg/dL未満
2)「負荷試験への反応性低下」
迅速ACTH負荷(250μg)に対する血中コルチゾールの反応:15μg/dL未満
3)「何らかの副腎不全症状がある」
以下に示すような何らかの副腎不全症状がある。
  1. 特徴的な色素沈着
  1. 半年間で5%以上の体重減少
  1. 低血圧
  1. 脱毛
  1. 低血糖症状
  1. 消化器症状(悪心、嘔吐など)
  1. 精神症状(無気力、嗜眠、不安など)
  1. 関節痛
  1. 過去1年間に急性副腎皮質不全症状に伴う入院歴がある
4)ステロイドを定期的に補充している者
※なお、症状の程度が上記の重症度分類等で一定以上に該当しない者であるが、高額な医療を継続することが必要な者については、医療費助成の対象とする。
 
(出典:厚生労働科学研究費補助金難治性疾患等政策研究事業「副腎ホルモン産生異常に関する調査研究」平成27年度総括・分担研究報告書p 63-68より引用)
病歴・診察のポイント  
  1. 病歴では、易疲労感、脱力感、悪心、嘔吐、食欲不振、体重減少(小児では発育障害)、耐寒性低下、精神症状、(無気力、嗜眠、不安、性格変化)などの症状の有無に注意する。

これより先の閲覧には個人契約のトライアルまたはお申込みが必要です。

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文献 

著者: Amir H Hamrahian, Tawakalitu S Oseni, Baha M Arafah
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 15;350(16):1629-38. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa020266.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Because more than 90 percent of circulating cortisol in human serum is protein-bound, changes in the binding proteins can alter measured serum total cortisol concentrations without influencing free concentrations of this hormone. We investigated the effect of decreased amounts of cortisol-binding proteins on serum total and free cortisol concentrations during critical illness, when glucocorticoid secretion is maximally stimulated.
METHODS: Base-line serum total cortisol, cosyntropin-stimulated serum total cortisol, aldosterone, and free cortisol concentrations were measured in 66 critically ill patients and 33 healthy volunteers in groups that were similar with regard to sex and age. Of the 66 patients, 36 had hypoproteinemia (albumin concentration, 2.5 g per deciliter or less), and 30 had near-normal serum albumin concentrations (above 2.5 g per deciliter).
RESULTS: Base-line and cosyntropin-stimulated serum total cortisol concentrations were lower in the patients with hypoproteinemia than in those with near-normal serum albumin concentrations (P<0.001). However, the mean (+/-SD) base-line serum free cortisol concentrations were similar in the two groups of patients (5.1+/-4.1 and 5.2+/-3.5 microg per deciliter [140.7+/-113.1 and 143.5+/-96.6 nmol per liter]) and were several times higher than the values in controls (0.6+/-0.3 microg per deciliter [16.6+/-8.3 nmol per liter], P<0.001 for both comparisons). Cosyntropin-stimulated serum total cortisol concentrations were subnormal (18.5 microg per deciliter [510.4 nmol per liter] or less) in 14 of the patients, all of whom had hypoproteinemia. In all 66 patients, including these 14 who had hypoproteinemia, the base-line and cosyntropin-stimulated serum free cortisol concentrations were high-normal or elevated.
CONCLUSIONS: During critical illness, glucocorticoid secretion markedly increases, but the increase is not discernible when only the serum total cortisol concentration is measured. In this study, nearly 40 percent of critically ill patients with hypoproteinemia had subnormal serum total cortisol concentrations, even though their adrenal function was normal. Measuring serum free cortisol concentrations in critically ill patients with hypoproteinemia may help prevent the unnecessary use of glucocorticoid therapy.

Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
PMID 15084695  N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 15;350(16):1629-38. doi: 10.1056・・・
著者: Richard I Dorin, Clifford R Qualls, Lawrence M Crapo
雑誌名: Ann Intern Med. 2003 Aug 5;139(3):194-204.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The cosyntropin stimulation test is the initial endocrine evaluation of suspected primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency.
PURPOSE: To critically review the utility of the cosyntropin stimulation test for evaluating adrenal insufficiency.
DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was searched from 1966 to 2002 for all English-language papers related to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency.
STUDY SELECTION: Studies with fewer than 5 persons with primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency or with fewer than 10 persons as normal controls were excluded. For secondary adrenal insufficiency, only studies that stratified participants by integrated tests of adrenal function were included.
DATA EXTRACTION: Summary receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from all studies that provided sensitivity and specificity data for 250-microg and 1-microg cosyntropin tests; these curves were then compared by using area under the curve (AUC) methods. All estimated values are given with 95% CIs.
DATA SYNTHESIS: At a specificity of 95%, sensitivities were 97%, 57%, and 61% for summary ROC curves in tests for primary adrenal insufficiency (250-microg cosyntropin test), secondary adrenal insufficiency (250-microg cosyntropin test), and secondary adrenal insufficiency (1-microg cosyntropin test), respectively. The area under the curve for primary adrenal insufficiency was significantly greater than the AUC for secondary adrenal insufficiency for the high-dose cosyntropin test (P < 0.001), but AUCs for the 250-microg and 1-microg cosyntropin tests did not differ significantly (P > 0.5) for secondary adrenal insufficiency. At a specificity of 95%, summary ROC analysis for the 250-microg cosyntropin test yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 11.5 (95% CI, 8.7 to 14.2) and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.45 (CI, 0.30 to 0.60) for the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency.
CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol response to cosyntropin varies considerably among healthy persons. The cosyntropin test performs well in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency, but the lower sensitivity in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency necessitates use of tests involving stimulation of the hypothalamus if the pretest probability is sufficiently high. The operating characteristics of the 250-microg and 1-microg cosyntropin tests are similar.

PMID 12899587  Ann Intern Med. 2003 Aug 5;139(3):194-204.
著者: O M Dekkers, J M Timmermans, J W A Smit, J A Romijn, A M Pereira
雑誌名: Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;164(1):83-7. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-0621. Epub 2010 Oct 29.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVES: To compare the cortisol response of the 1 μg and the 250 μg ACTH test in a large study of patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
METHODS: Single center study assessing patients tested for primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency between January 2004 and December 2007, who had both ACTH tests (1 μg and 250 μg; n=207) within a time interval of 6 weeks. Test results were compared with a Bland-Altman plot and McNemar's test.
RESULTS: The mean difference between the cortisol responses in the two ACTH tests was 26 nmol/l (95% confidence interval (CI) 13, 40), showing a marginally higher response for the 250 μg test. The diagnostic performances of the two tests were similar (P=0.49) using a cut-off value for cortisol of 550 nmol/l. A normal cortisol response to the 1 μg ACTH test could be accompanied by an abnormal response to the 250 μg ACTH test, and vice versa.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that the 1 μg and the 250 μg ACTH tests have comparable cortisol responses in patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. However, in individual patients, the difference in cortisol response to the two tests can be substantial, and the response in the 250 μg test is not invariably higher than the response in a 1 μg test.

PMID 21036888  Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;164(1):83-7. doi: 10.1530/EJ・・・
著者: S K Grinspoon, B M Biller
雑誌名: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Oct;79(4):923-31. doi: 10.1210/jcem.79.4.7962298.
Abstract/Text
PMID 7962298  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Oct;79(4):923-31. doi: 10・・・
著者: E Erturk, C A Jaffe, A L Barkan
雑誌名: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2350-4. doi: 10.1210/jcem.83.7.4980.
Abstract/Text We retrospectively reviewed dynamic ACTH and cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia in 193 subjects with suspected ACTH deficiency to ascertain the predictive values of various diagnostic criteria. Based on the achievement of a peak cortisol level of 18 micrograms/dL or above, 133 subjects were classified as having an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and 60 subjects were determined to have ACTH deficiency. Baseline and peak cortisol concentrations were strongly correlated (r = 0.63; P < 0.0001). Peak cortisol increased in parallel to ACTH increments, but plateaued at approximately 22 micrograms/dL at peak ACTH levels above approximately 75 pg/mL (r = 0.61; P < 0.0001). Basal cortisol values above 17 micrograms/dL or below 4 micrograms/dL were highly predictive of an intact or impaired HPA axis, respectively, but intermediate values had only limited sensitivity and specificity. The criteria of HPA axis integrity, defined as an increment in plasma cortisol of more than 7 micrograms/dL above the baseline or as a doubling of the baseline cortisol value, were associated with high false positive and false negative rates. We conclude that 1) the baseline morning serum cortisol concentration has very limited predictive power in differentiating between normal and impaired HPA function; 2) the use of criteria based on incremental changes in serum cortisol from baseline leads to unacceptably high false positive and false negative rates; and 3) insulin hypoglycemia is still the best indicator of the integrity of the response of the HPA axis to stress.

PMID 9661607  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2350-4. doi: 10・・・
著者: Katherine White, Wiebke Arlt
雑誌名: Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Jan;162(1):115-20. doi: 10.1530/EJE-09-0559. Epub 2009 Sep 23.
Abstract/Text CONTEXT: Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening event that occurs regularly in Addison's patients receiving standard replacement therapy. Patient reports suggest that it is an underestimated and under-managed event.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of adrenal crisis in diagnosed patients and to understand the factors contributing to the risks of adrenal crisis.
DESIGN: We conducted a postal survey of Addison's patients in four countries, UK (n=485), Canada (n=148), Australia (n=123) and New Zealand (n=85) in 2003, asking about patients' experiences of adrenal crisis and their demographic characteristics. In 2006, a shorter follow-up survey was conducted in the UK (n=261).
METHOD: The frequency and causes of adrenal crisis were compared across both surveys. Demographic data from the 2003 survey were analysed to establish the main variables associated with an elevated risk of crisis.
RESULTS: Around 8% of diagnosed cases can be expected to need hospital treatment for adrenal crisis annually. Exposure to gastric infection is the single most important factor predicting the likelihood of adrenal crisis. Concomitant diabetes and/or asthma increase the frequency of adrenal crises reported by patients.
CONCLUSION: The endocrinologist has a responsibility to ensure that Addison's patients have adequate access to life-saving emergency injection materials and repeated, practical training sessions in how to use them, while the general practitioner plays a vital role as in arranging prompt emergency admissions.

PMID 19776201  Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Jan;162(1):115-20. doi: 10.1530/・・・
著者: G P Kraan, R P Dullaart, J J Pratt, B G Wolthers, N M Drayer, R De Bruin
雑誌名: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr;83(4):1247-52. doi: 10.1210/jcem.83.4.4694.
Abstract/Text We have measured the urinary cortisol production rate (uCPR) simultaneously with the serum cortisol production rate (sCPR) in four healthy men within a period of 3 days. uCPR, determined by isotope dilution of 11-oxoetiocholanolone was compared with sCPR, which was measured in three different ways (a, b, c). Blood was sampled at 10-min intervals for 24 h, and deconvolution analysis was applied to the cortisol concentrations. The daily serum cortisol production per liter, multiplied by the distribution volume yielded sCPR. The measurement methods are characterized as follows: a) the secretion and elimination terms were free; b) like method a, but with the input of the rate constants alpha and beta into the elimination function; c) the average 24-h cortisol concentration was multiplied by the metabolic clearance rate. uCPR was 25.4 +/- 4.7 [range: 21.3-31.4] micromol/(m2 x day), sCPR (method a) was 28.8 +/- 4.5 [range: 23.5-34.3] micromol/(m2 x day), sCPR (method b) was 27.9 +/- 8.1 [range: 18.5-37.7] micromol/(m2 x day), and sCPR (method c) was 29.3 +/- 4.8 [range: 22.7-33.2] micromol/(m2 x day). uCPR did not significantly differ from each of the 3 sCPR values (P > 0.30; > 0.46; and > 0.06, respectively). The patterns of the cortisol secretory rates in the present and previous studies do not necessarily represent the physiological process of the secretory bursts. We conclude that the estimated CPR, being 25-30 micromol/(m2 x day) [9-11 mg/(m2 x day)], can serve as a guideline for glucocorticoid replacement dose and that the urinary route to measure CPR is preferred because of its relative ease.

PMID 9543150  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr;83(4):1247-52. doi: 1・・・
著者: Lisa B Nachtigall, Elena Valassi, Janet Lo, David McCarty, Jonathan Passeri, Beverly M K Biller, Karen K Miller, Andrea Utz, Steven Grinspoon, Elizabeth A Lawson, Anne Klibanski
雑誌名: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Jan;72(1):53-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03608.x. Epub 2009 Apr 17.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Ergot-derived dopamine agonists are associated with increased risk of valvular dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. The risk of valvular disease associated with lower doses of cabergoline used to treat prolactinomas remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association of cabergoline and valvular function in patients with hyperprolactinaemia according to gender.
DESIGN: Case-record retrospective study.
SETTING: Outpatient neuroendocrine clinical centre at a tertiary care hospital.
STUDY PARTICIPANTS: One hundred patients (48 men and 52 women) with hyperprolactinaemia who had an echocardiogram while receiving cabergoline for at least 6 months.
CONTROLS: One hundred controls (48 men and 52 women) selected from Massachusetts general hospital (MGH) database of echocardiograms without clinically significant findings, matched to patients for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Echocardiogram.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in valvular function in patients compared with controls. However, women patients had a higher prevalence of mild tricuspid regurgitation (TR) than female controls (15.4%vs. 1.9%, P = 0.03). Among men only, patients had more trace TR than controls (68.8%vs. 45.8%, P = 0.02). The mild valvular regurgitation in patients was not clinically significant and did not correlate with dose, duration or cumulative dose.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall cabergoline was not associated with valvulopathy. However, subdivided by gender, hyperprolactinaemic men and women had higher prevalence of trace or mild TR, respectively, compared with gender matched controls. There may be gender differences in valvular dysfunction associated with cabergoline. Longer term, larger studies are necessary to evaluate definitively an effect of cabergoline on valvular function in hyperprolactinaemic patients.

PMID 19508591  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Jan;72(1):53-8. doi: 10.111・・・
著者: Stefanie Hahner, Bruno Allolio
雑誌名: Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr;23(2):167-79. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2008.09.009.
Abstract/Text Replacement therapy in adrenal insufficiency comprises treatment with glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgen precursors. Initiation of hormone replacement therapy in newly diagnosed adrenal insufficiency leads to rapid and impressive improvements. However, despite the use of established replacement concepts, well-being is often not fully restored in patients with adrenal insufficiency, and life expectancy may even be reduced. This has led to a reconsideration of current replacement strategies. Several studies demonstrate that addition of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to the treatment regimen may lead to further improvement of general well-being and also sexual function. However, long-term trials with DHEA are still lacking, and DHEA alone is not able to restore subjective health status to normal. Further innovations comprise the development of delayed-release glucocorticoid preparations that better allow mimicking of circadian cortisol secretion and may have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency. However, future studies have to prove the clinical importance of physiological cortisol day profiles. To date, no relevant risk factors for susceptibility to adrenal crisis are known, and patient education is key for a successful prevention strategy. In our experience the well-educated patient often guides the physician not familiar with this disease.

PMID 19500761  Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr;23(2):16・・・
著者: R Giordano, S Marzotti, M Balbo, S Romagnoli, E Marinazzo, R Berardelli, G Migliaretti, A Benso, A Falorni, E Ghigo, E Arvat
雑誌名: J Endocrinol Invest. 2009 Dec;32(11):917-23. doi: 10.3275/6437. Epub 2009 Jul 20.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: Although two studies have shown that Addison's disease (AD) is still a potentially lethal condition for cardiovascular, malignant, and infectious diseases, a recent retrospective study showed a normal overall mortality rate. Differently from secondary hypoadrenalism, scanty data exist on the role of conventional glucocorticoid replacement on metabolic and cardiovascular outcome in AD.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 38 AD under conventional glucocorticoid replacement (hydrocortisone 30 mg/day or cortisone 37.5 mg/day) ACTH, plasma renin activity (PRA), DHEAS, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-h glucose after oral glucose tolerance test, serum lipids, 24-h blood pressure and intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated and compared with 38 age-, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (CS).
RESULTS: AD had ACTH and PRA higher and DHEAS lower (p<0.0005) than CS. Mean waist was higher (p<0.05) in AD than in CS. Although no differences were found for mean gluco-lipids levels, a higher percentage of AD compared to CS were IGT (8 vs 0%), hypercholesterolemic (18 vs 8%), and hypertriglyceridemic (18 vs 8%); none of the AD and CS showed either HDL<40 mg/dl or LDL>190 mg/dl. At the multiple regression analysis, in both AD and CS, BMI was the best predictor of 2-h glucose and age of total and LDL cholesterol; in AD, no significant correlation was found between the above mentioned metabolic parameters and either hormone levels or disease duration. In both AD and CS 24-h blood pressure and IMT were normal.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a higher prevalence of central adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in AD patients.

PMID 19620820  J Endocrinol Invest. 2009 Dec;32(11):917-23. doi: 10.32・・・
著者: Kristian Løvås, Clara G Gjesdal, Monika Christensen, Anette B Wolff, Bjørg Almås, Johan Svartberg, Kristian J Fougner, Unni Syversen, Jens Bollerslev, Jan A Falch, Penelope J Hunt, V Krishna K Chatterjee, Eystein S Husebye
雑誌名: Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Jun;160(6):993-1002. doi: 10.1530/EJE-08-0880. Epub 2009 Mar 12.
Abstract/Text UNLABELLED: Context Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) receive more glucococorticoids than the normal endogenous production, raising concern about adverse effects on bone.
OBJECTIVE: To determine i) the effects of glucocorticoid replacement therapy on bone, and ii) the impact of glucocorticoid pharmacogenetics.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study of two large Addison's cohorts from Norway (n=187) and from UK and New Zealand (n=105).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured; the Z-scores represent comparison with a reference population. Blood samples from 187 Norwegian patients were analysed for bone markers and common polymorphisms in genes that have been associated with glucocorticoid sensitivity.
RESULTS: Femoral neck BMD Z-scores were significantly reduced in the patients (Norway: mean -0.28 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.42, -0.16); UK and New Zealand: -0.21 (95% CI -0.36, -0.06)). Lumbar spine Z-scores were reduced (Norway: -0.17 (-0.36, +0.01); UK and New Zealand: -0.57 (-0.78, -0.37)), and significantly lower in males compared with females (P=0.02). The common P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) polymorphism C3435T was significantly associated with total BMD (CC and CT>TT P=0.015), with a similar trend at the hip and spine.
CONCLUSIONS: BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine is reduced in Addison's disease, indicating undesirable effects of the replacement therapy. The findings lend support to the recommendations that 15-25 mg hydrocortisone daily is more appropriate than the higher conventional doses. A common polymorphism in the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein is associated with reduced bone mass and might confer susceptibility to glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis.

PMID 19282465  Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Jun;160(6):993-1002. doi: 10.153・・・
著者: S R Peacey, C Y Guo, A M Robinson, A Price, M A Giles, R Eastell, A P Weetman
雑誌名: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997 Mar;46(3):255-61.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate assessment of patients on glucocorticoid replacement therapy is of great importance to avoid the consequences of under or over treatment, but no simple test is available for this. The aims of this study were (1) to assess adequacy of glucocorticoid replacement in hypoadrenal patients, (2) to correlate serum cortisol levels (cortisol day curve) with 24-hour urine free cortisol excretion and (3) to assess the impact of glucocorticoid dose optimization on markers of bone formation and bone resorption.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of current replacement therapy and a prospective study of the effect of dose alteration on bone turnover markers.
PATIENTS: Thirty-two consecutive patients on replacement glucocorticoid therapy (12 Addison's disease, 20 hypopituitarism) from a University teaching hospital out-patient department.
MEASUREMENTS: Serum and urinary cortisol, osteocalcin, N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone mineral density.
RESULTS: 28/32 (88%) patients required a change of therapy; 24/32 (75%) a total reduction in dose, 18/32 (56%) a change in replacement therapy regimen or drug and 14/32 (44%) both changes. The mean daily dose of hydrocortisone was reduced from 29.5 +/- 1.2 to 20.8 +/- 1.0 mg. A significant correlation was found between peak cortisol and 24-hour urine free cortisol/ creatinine (Spearman correlation r = 0.60, P < 0.0001; n = 51). Following hydrocortisone dose reduction, median osteocalcin increased from 16.7 micrograms/l (range 8.2-65.7) to 19.9 micrograms/l (8.2-56.3); P < 0.01, with no change in the NTX/creatinine ratio.
CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of patients on conventional corticosteroid replacement therapy are over treated or on inappropriate replacement regimens. To reduce the long term risk of osteoporosis, corticosteroid replacement therapy should be individually assessed and over replacement avoided.

PMID 9156031  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997 Mar;46(3):255-61.
著者: Stefanie Hahner, Melanie Loeffler, Martin Fassnacht, Dirk Weismann, Ann-Cathrin Koschker, Marcus Quinkler, Oliver Decker, Wiebke Arlt, Bruno Allolio
雑誌名: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Oct;92(10):3912-22. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-0685. Epub 2007 Aug 7.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that current replacement regimens fail to restore health-related subjective health status fully in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Here we evaluated the subjective health status in primary and secondary AI and the effect of concomitant disease.
METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, all AI patients registered with the University Hospital Wuerzburg (n = 148) or with the German Self-Help Network (n = 200) were contacted by mail. Underlying diagnoses and comorbidities were verified by review of medical records. Patients were asked to complete three validated self-assessment questionnaires [Short Form 36 (SF-36), Giessen Complaint List (GBB-24), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)]. Results were compared to sex- and age-matched controls drawn from the questionnaire-specific reference cohorts.
RESULTS: We identified 348 patients, and 256 agreed to participate. Completed questionnaire sets were available from 210 patients [primary AI (n = 132), secondary AI (n = 78)]. Seven of eight SF-36 dimensions, all five GBB-24 scales, and the HADS anxiety score reflected significant impairment of subjective health status in both AI cohorts (all P < 0.001). Even after exclusion of all patients with any concomitant disease, subjective health status remained significantly impaired in five SF-36 subscales and four GBB-24 subscales. Secondary AI patients were slightly more compromised than primary AI, significant with regard to two SF-36 scales (P < 0.05) and the HADS depression score (P < 0.001). A total of 18.3% of the AI patients were out of work, compared to 4.1% in the general population.
CONCLUSION: Patients with AI on current standard replacement suffer from significantly impaired health-related subjective health status, irrespective of origin of disease or concomitant disease. Future studies will have to assess whether more physiological glucocorticoid replacement strategies in AI will ameliorate these impairments.

PMID 17684047  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Oct;92(10):3912-22. doi: ・・・
著者: Peak M Mah, Richard C Jenkins, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, John Newell-Price, Anita Doane, Victoria Ibbotson, Geoffrey T Tucker, Richard J Ross
雑誌名: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Sep;61(3):367-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2004.02106.x.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the variables determining hydrocortisone (HC) disposition in patients with adrenal insufficiency and to develop practical protocols for individualized prescribing and monitoring of HC treatment.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Serum cortisol profiles were measured in 20 cortisol-insufficient patients (09.00 h cortisol < 50 nmol/l) given oral HC as either a fixed or 'body surface area-adjusted' dose in the fasted or fed state. Endogenous cortisol levels were measured in healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using P-Pharm software, and computer simulations were used to assess the likely population distribution of the data.
RESULTS: Body weight was the most important predictor of HC clearance. A fixed 10-mg HC dose overexposed patients to cortisol by 6.3%, whereas weight-adjusted dosing decreased interpatient variability in maximum cortisol concentration from 31 to 7%, decreased area under the curve (AUC) from 50 to 22% (P < 0.05), and reduced overexposure to < 5%. Food taken before HC delayed its absorption. Serum cortisol measured 4 h after HC predicted cortisol AUC (r(2) = 0.78; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: We recommend weight-adjusted HC dosing, thrice daily before food, monitored with a single serum cortisol measurement using a nomogram. This regimen was prospectively examined in 40 cortisol-insufficient patients, 85% of whom opted to remain on the new thrice-daily treatment regimen.

PMID 15355454  Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Sep;61(3):367-75. doi: 10.1・・・

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