今日の臨床サポート

緑内障(急性閉塞隅角緑内障、続発緑内障を除く)

著者: 相原 一 東京大学 眼科

監修: 沖波聡 倉敷中央病院眼科

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2021/06/23
患者向け説明資料
薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
相原 一 : 講演料(千寿製薬(株),参天製薬(株),大塚製薬(株)),研究費・助成金など(佐藤製薬(株),興和(株),千寿製薬(株)),奨学(奨励)寄付など(HOYA(株),エイエムオー・ジャパン(株),参天製薬(株),参天製薬(株),(株)日本点眼薬研究所,わかもと製薬(株))[2021年]
監修:沖波聡 : 特に申告事項無し[2021年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. 定期レビューを行い、新規薬剤および手術方法を追加した。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報  
  1. 緑内障とは、視神経と視野に特徴的変化を有し、通常、眼圧を十分に下降させることにより、視神経障害を改善もしくは抑制し得る眼の機能的構造的異常を特徴とする疾患である(緑内障の定義と病態予後)。
  1. そのうち原発開放隅角緑内障(広義)は臨床上、開放隅角であり、眼圧上昇を来し得る疾患(状況)の有無および付随する要因がなく、特徴的な視神経乳頭および網膜神経線維層(RNFL)変化、さらにそれに合致した視野異常を有することから診断する(診断基準)。
  1. 原発開放隅角緑内障(広義)は、便宜上眼圧が統計学的正常眼圧上限値21mmHg以上の原発開放隅角緑内障(狭義)と、それ以下の正常眼圧緑内障(NTG)を包括した疾患概念である。
  1. 40歳以上の日本人の疫学調査結果では3.9%。そのうち正常眼圧緑内障が約9割を占める(疫学)。
  1. 視野障害が進行するまで自覚症状がないため、受診率は1割程度しかなく、失明原因の上位を占める。検診により早期診断早期治療を行うことが望まれる(疫学)。
問診・診察のポイント  
  1. 原発開放隅角緑内障の診断には開放隅角で、ほかに眼圧上昇の原因がないことが重要であるため、外傷、ステロイド薬使用の有無を確認する。

今なら12か月分の料金で14ヶ月利用できます(個人契約、期間限定キャンペーン)

11月30日(火)までにお申込みいただくと、
通常12ヵ月の使用期間が2ヶ月延長となり、14ヵ月ご利用いただけるようになります。

詳しくはクリック
本サイトの知的財産権は全てエルゼビアまたはコンテンツのライセンサーに帰属します。私的利用及び別途規定されている場合を除き、本サイトの利用はいかなる許諾を与えるものでもありません。 本サイト、そのコンテンツ、製品およびサービスのご利用は、お客様ご自身の責任において行ってください。本サイトの利用に基づくいかなる損害についても、エルゼビアは一切の責任及び賠償義務を負いません。 また、本サイトの利用を以て、本サイト利用者は、本サイトの利用に基づき第三者に生じるいかなる損害についても、エルゼビアを免責することに合意したことになります。  本サイトを利用される医学・医療提供者は、独自の臨床的判断を行使するべきです。本サイト利用者の判断においてリスクを正当なものとして受け入れる用意がない限り、コンテンツにおいて提案されている検査または処置がなされるべきではありません。 医学の急速な進歩に鑑み、エルゼビアは、本サイト利用者が診断方法および投与量について、独自に検証を行うことを推奨いたします。

文献 

著者:
雑誌名: Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct;126(4):487-97.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: To determine if intraocular pressure plays a part in the pathogenic process of normal-tension glaucoma.
METHODS: One eye of each eligible subject was randomized either to be untreated as a control or to have intraocular pressure lowered by 30% from baseline. Eyes were randomized if they met criteria for diagnosis of normal-tension glaucoma and showed documented progression or high-risk field defects that threatened fixation or the appearance of a new disk hemorrhage. The clinical course (visual field and optic disk) of the group with lowered intraocular pressure was compared with the clinical course when intraocular pressure remained at its spontaneous untreated level.
RESULTS: One hundred-forty eyes of 140 patients were used in this study. Sixty-one were in the treatment group, and 79 were untreated controls. Twenty-eight (35%) of the control eyes and 7 (12%) of the treated eyes reached end points (specifically defined criteria of glaucomatous optic disk progression or visual field loss). An overall survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < .0001). The mean survival time +/-SD of the treated group was 2,688 +/- 123 days and for the control group, 1,695 +/- 143 days. Of 34 cataracts developed during the study, 11 (14%) occurred in the control group and 23 (38%) in the treated group (P = .0075), with the highest incidence in those whose treatment included filtration surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular pressure is part of the pathogenic process in normal-tension glaucoma. Therapy that is effective in lowering intraocular pressure and free of adverse effects would be expected to be beneficial in patients who are at risk of disease progression.

PMID 9780093  Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct;126(4):487-97.
著者:
雑誌名: Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct;126(4):498-505.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: In a companion paper, we determined that intraocular pressure is part of the pathogenesis of normal-tension glaucoma by analyzing the effect of a 30% intraocular pressure reduction on the subsequent course of the disease. We report an intent-to-treat analysis of the study data to determine the effectiveness of pressure reduction.
METHODS: One eligible eye of 145 subjects with normal-tension glaucoma was randomized either to no treatment (control) or to a 30% intraocular pressure reduction from baseline. To be eligible for randomization, the normal-tension glaucoma eyes had to show documented progression of field defects or a new disk hemorrhage or had to have field defects that threatened fixation when first presented for the study. Survival analysis compared time to progression of all randomly assigned patients during the course of follow-up from the initial baseline at randomization. In a separate analysis, data of patients developing cataracts were censored at the time that cataract produced 2 lines of Snellen visual acuity loss.
RESULTS: Visual field progression occurred at indistinguishable rates in the pressure-lowered (22/66) and the untreated control (31/79) arms of the study (P = .21). In an analysis with data censored when cataract affected visual acuity, visual field progression was significantly more common in the untreated group (21/79) compared with the treated group (8/66). An overall survival analysis showed a survival of 80% in the treated arm and of 60% in the control arm at 3 years, and 80% in the treated arm and 40% in the controls at 5 years. The Kaplan-Meier curves were significantly different (P = .0018). The analyses gave different results because of a higher incidence of cataract in the group that underwent filtration surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: The favorable effect of intraocular pressure reduction on progression of visual change in normal-tension glaucoma was only found when the impact of cataracts on visual field progression, produced largely by surgery, was removed. Lowering intraocular pressure without producing cataracts is beneficial. Because not all untreated patients progressed, the natural history of normal-tension glaucoma must be considered before embarking on intraocular pressure reduction with therapy apt to exacerbate cataract formation unless normal-tension glaucoma threatens serious visual loss.

PMID 9780094  Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct;126(4):498-505.
著者:
雑誌名: Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;130(4):429-40.
Abstract/Text PURPOSE: To investigate the association between control of intraocular pressure after surgical intervention for glaucoma and visual field deterioration.
METHODS: In the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study, eyes were randomly assigned to one of two sequences of glaucoma surgery, one beginning with argon laser trabeculoplasty and the other trabeculectomy. In the present article we examine the relationship between intraocular pressure and progression of visual field damage over 6 or more years of follow-up. In the first analysis, designated Predictive Analysis, we categorize 738 eyes into three groups based on intraocular pressure determinations over the first three 6-month follow-up visits. In the second analysis, designated Associative Analysis, we categorize 586 eyes into four groups based on the percent of 6-month visits over the first 6 follow-up years in which eyes presented with intraocular pressure less than 18 mm Hg. The outcome measure in both analyses is change from baseline in follow-up visual field defect score (range, 0 to 20 units).
RESULTS: In the Predictive Analysis, eyes with early average intraocular pressure greater than 17.5 mm Hg had an estimated worsening during subsequent follow-up that was 1 unit of visual field defect score greater than eyes with average intraocular pressure less than 14 mm Hg (P =.002). This amount of worsening was greater at 7 years (1.89 units; P <.001) than at 2 years (0.64 units; P =.071). In the Associative Analysis, eyes with 100% of visits with intraocular pressure less than 18 mm Hg over 6 years had mean changes from baseline in visual field defect score close to zero during follow-up, whereas eyes with less than 50% of visits with intraocular pressure less than 18 mm Hg had an estimated worsening over follow-up of 0.63 units of visual field defect score (P =.083). This amount of worsening was greater at 7 years (1.93 units; P <.001) than at 2 years (0.25 units; P =.572).
CONCLUSIONS: In both analyses low intraocular pressure is associated with reduced progression of visual field defect, supporting evidence from earlier studies of a protective role for low intraocular pressure in visual field deterioration.

PMID 11024415  Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;130(4):429-40.
著者: Michael A Kass, Dale K Heuer, Eve J Higginbotham, Chris A Johnson, John L Keltner, J Philip Miller, Richard K Parrish, M Roy Wilson, Mae O Gordon
雑誌名: Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Jun;120(6):701-13; discussion 829-30.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States and worldwide. Three to 6 million people in the United States are at increased risk for developing POAG because of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), or ocular hypertension. There is no consensus on the efficacy of medical treatment in delaying or preventing the onset of POAG in individuals with elevated IOP. Therefore, we designed a randomized clinical trial, the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of topical ocular hypotensive medication in delaying or preventing the onset of POAG.
METHODS: A total of 1636 participants with no evidence of glaucomatous damage, aged 40 to 80 years, and with an IOP between 24 mm Hg and 32 mm Hg in one eye and between 21 mm Hg and 32 mm Hg in the other eye were randomized to either observation or treatment with commercially available topical ocular hypotensive medication. The goal in the medication group was to reduce the IOP by 20% or more and to reach an IOP of 24 mm Hg or less.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the development of reproducible visual field abnormality or reproducible optic disc deterioration attributed to POAG. Abnormalities were determined by masked certified readers at the reading centers, and attribution to POAG was decided by the masked Endpoint Committee.
RESULTS: During the course of the study, the mean +/- SD reduction in IOP in the medication group was 22.5% +/- 9.9%. The IOP declined by 4.0% +/- 11.6% in the observation group. At 60 months, the cumulative probability of developing POAG was 4.4% in the medication group and 9.5% in the observation group (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.59; P<.0001). There was little evidence of increased systemic or ocular risk associated with ocular hypotensive medication.
CONCLUSIONS: Topical ocular hypotensive medication was effective in delaying or preventing the onset of POAG in individuals with elevated IOP. Although this does not imply that all patients with borderline or elevated IOP should receive medication, clinicians should consider initiating treatment for individuals with ocular hypertension who are at moderate or high risk for developing POAG.

PMID 12049574  Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Jun;120(6):701-13; discussion 829・・・
著者: Anders Heijl, M Cristina Leske, Bo Bengtsson, Leslie Hyman, Boel Bengtsson, Mohamed Hussein, Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial Group
雑誌名: Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Oct;120(10):1268-79. doi: 10.1001/archopht.120.10.1268.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: To provide the results of the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial, which compared the effect of immediately lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP), vs no treatment or later treatment, on the progression of newly detected open-angle glaucoma.
DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial.
PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-five patients aged 50 to 80 years (median, 68 years) with early glaucoma, visual field defects (median mean deviation, -4 dB), and a median IOP of 20 mm Hg, mainly identified through a population screening. Patients with an IOP greater than 30 mm Hg or advanced visual field loss were ineligible.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to either laser trabeculoplasty plus topical betaxolol hydrochloride (n = 129) or no initial treatment (n = 126). Study visits included Humphrey Full Threshold 30-2 visual field tests and tonometry every 3 months, and optic disc photography every 6 months. Decisions regarding treatment were made jointly with the patient when progression occurred and thereafter.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glaucoma progression was defined by specific visual field and optic disc outcomes. Criteria for perimetric progression were computer based and defined as the same 3 or more test point locations showing significant deterioration from baseline in glaucoma change probability maps from 3 consecutive tests. Optic disc progression was determined by masked graders using flicker chronoscopy plus side-by-side photogradings.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 6 years (range, 51-102 months), retention was excellent, with only 6 patients lost to follow-up for reasons other than death. On average, treatment reduced the IOP by 5.1 mm Hg or 25%, a reduction maintained throughout follow-up. Progression was less frequent in the treatment group (58/129; 45%) than in controls (78/126; 62%) (P =.007) and occurred significantly later in treated patients. Treatment effects were also evident when stratifying patients by median IOP, mean deviation, and age as well as exfoliation status. Although patients reported few systemic or ocular conditions, increases in clinical nuclear lens opacity gradings were associated with treatment (P =.002).
CONCLUSIONS: The Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial is the first adequately powered randomized trial with an untreated control arm to evaluate the effects of IOP reduction in patients with open-angle glaucoma who have elevated and normal IOP. Its intent-to-treat analysis showed considerable beneficial effects of treatment that significantly delayed progression. Whereas progression varied across patient categories, treatment effects were present in both older and younger patients, high- and normal-tension glaucoma, and eyes with less and greater visual field loss.

PMID 12365904  Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Oct;120(10):1268-79. doi: 10.1001・・・
著者: M Cristina Leske, Anders Heijl, Mohamed Hussein, Bo Bengtsson, Leslie Hyman, Eugene Komaroff, Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial Group
雑誌名: Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Jan;121(1):48-56.
Abstract/Text OBJECTIVE: To assess factors for progression in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), including the effect of EMGT treatment.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-five open-angle glaucoma patients randomized to argon laser trabeculoplasty plus topical betaxolol or no immediate treatment (129 treated; 126 controls) and followed up every 3 months.
METHODS: Progression was determined by perimetric and photographic optic disc criteria. Patient-based risk of progression was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression models and was expressed as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
RESULTS: After 6 years, 53% of patients progressed. In multivariate analyses, progression risk was halved by treatment (HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.35-0.71). Predictive baseline factors were higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (ie, the higher the baseline IOP, the higher the risk), exfoliation, and having both eyes eligible (each of the latter 2 factors doubled the risk), as well as worse mean deviation and older age. Progression risk decreased by about 10% with each millimeter of mercury of IOP reduction from baseline to the first follow-up visit (HR = 0.90 per millimeter of mercury decrease; 95% CI, 0.86-0.94). The first IOP at that visit (3 months' follow-up) was also related to progression (HR = 1.11 per millimeter of mercury higher; 95% CI, 1.06-1.17), as was the mean IOP at follow-up (HR = 1.13 per millimeter of mercury higher; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19). The percent of patient follow-up visits with disc hemorrhages was also related to progression (HR = 1.02 per percent higher; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03). No other factors were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated in the EMGT had half of the progression risk of control patients. The magnitude of initial IOP reduction was a major factor influencing outcome. Progression was also increased with higher baseline IOP, exfoliation, bilateral disease, worse mean deviation, and older age, as well as frequent disc hemorrhages during follow-up. Each higher (or lower) millimeter of mercury of IOP on follow-up was associated with an approximate 10% increased (or decreased) risk of progression.

PMID 12523884  Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Jan;121(1):48-56.

ページ上部に戻る

戻る

さらなるご利用にはご登録が必要です。

こちらよりご契約または優待日間無料トライアルお申込みをお願いします。

(※トライアルご登録は1名様につき、一度となります)


ご契約の場合はご招待された方だけのご優待特典があります。

以下の優待コードを入力いただくと、

契約期間が通常12ヵ月のところ、14ヵ月ご利用いただけます。

優待コード: (利用期限:まで)

ご契約はこちらから