今日の臨床サポート

一過性虚血性発作

著者: 岡田 靖 国立病院機構九州医療センター

監修: 内山真一郎 国際医療福祉大学臨床医学研究センター

著者校正/監修レビュー済:2021/09/15
参考ガイドライン:
  1. 日本脳卒中学会:脳卒中治療ガイドライン2021
患者向け説明資料

概要・推奨   

  1. 一過性虚血性発作(transient ischemic attack: TIA)の定義(日本脳卒中学会)は局所脳または網膜の虚血に起因する一過性の神経機能障害で急性梗塞の所見がないものである。
  1. TIA発症後、90日以内の脳卒中発症危険度は15~20%である。TIAの患者は、常に脳梗塞を考慮し、その予防に努めることが推奨される(推奨度1)。
  1. TIAから完成型脳卒中に移行した患者のうち約半数は、TIA発作からわずか48時間以内に発症している。TIAは迅速に評価し、治療を開始することが推奨される(推奨度2)。
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  1. TIAの患者では、ABCD2スコアをはじめとした予測スコアを用いて脳梗塞の発症リスクを評価することが推奨される。(推奨度2)。
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薬剤監修について:
オーダー内の薬剤用量は日本医科大学付属病院 薬剤部 部長 伊勢雄也 以下、林太祐、渡邉裕次、井ノ口岳洋、梅田将光による疑義照会のプロセスを実施、疑義照会の対象については著者の方による再確認を実施しております。
※薬剤中分類、用法、同効薬、診療報酬は、エルゼビアが独自に作成した薬剤情報であり、
著者により作成された情報ではありません。
尚、用法は添付文書より、同効薬は、薬剤師監修のもとで作成しております。
※薬剤情報の(適外/適内/⽤量内/⽤量外/㊜)等の表記は、エルゼビアジャパン編集部によって記載日時にレセプトチェックソフトなどで確認し作成しております。ただし、これらの記載は、実際の保険適用の査定において保険適用及び保険適用外と判断されることを保証するものではありません。また、検査薬、輸液、血液製剤、全身麻酔薬、抗癌剤等の薬剤は保険適用の記載の一部を割愛させていただいています。
(詳細はこちらを参照)
著者のCOI(Conflicts of Interest)開示:
岡田 靖 : 講演料(バイエル,ファイザー)[2021年]
監修:内山真一郎 : 特に申告事項無し[2021年]

改訂のポイント:
  1. TIAの定義(日本脳卒中学会)の変更によりMRI拡散強調画像陽性所見は急性期脳梗塞として扱い、記載を変更した。

病態・疫学・診察

疾患情報(疫学・病態)  
  1. 一過性虚血性発作(transient ischemic attack: TIA)とは、一過性に片側脱力、言語障害、視野障害などの局所脳または網膜の虚血に起因する神経障害の一過性のエピソードであり、急性梗塞の所見がなく、その神経徴候は長くとも24時間以内に消失する疾患である。
  1. TIAは脳出血を含む完成型脳卒中、循環代謝・末梢神経疾患を除外し、一過性の局所神経症状と急性梗塞の画像所見がないことを確認して診断する。
  1. 一過性神経症状は発症および消失時刻、持続時間が確認できる。
  1. 一過性の片側脱力、言語障害、視野障害の病歴、または確認した神経徴候が24時間以内に消失する。
  1. 脳局所および網膜の虚血の存在、原因と考えられる危険因子、血管病変または塞栓源の存在を確認する。
  1. TIAの評価にMRI拡散強調画像、MRA、補助診断に頚部血管エコー、心電図・心臓超音波、血液検査を実施する。
  1. TIA発症後早期に脳梗塞を続発するリスクが高く、1~2日以内の評価と治療開始で脳梗塞を予防することが勧められる。
病歴・診察のポイント  
  1. TIAおよび脳卒中を引き起こすリスクの有無を確認(年齢、高血圧、糖尿病、脂質異常、頚動脈狭窄、心房細動、喫煙など)。

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文献 

著者: S Claiborne Johnston, Peter M Rothwell, Mai N Nguyen-Huynh, Matthew F Giles, Jacob S Elkins, Allan L Bernstein, Stephen Sidney
雑誌名: Lancet. 2007 Jan 27;369(9558):283-92. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60150-0.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: We aimed to validate two similar existing prognostic scores for early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and to derive and validate a unified score optimised for prediction of 2-day stroke risk to inform emergency management.
METHODS: The California and ABCD scores were validated in four independent groups of patients (n=2893) diagnosed with TIA in emergency departments and clinics in defined populations in the USA and UK. Prognostic value was quantified with c statistics. The two groups used to derive the original scores (n=1916) were used to derive a new unified score based on logistic regression.
FINDINGS: The two existing scores predicted the risk of stroke similarly in each of the four validation cohorts, for stroke risks at 2 days, 7 days, and 90 days (c statistics 0.60-0.81). In both derivation groups, c statistics were improved for a unified score based on five factors (age >or=60 years [1 point]; blood pressure >or=140/90 mm Hg [1]; clinical features: unilateral weakness [2], speech impairment without weakness [1]; duration >or=60 min [2] or 10-59 min [1]; and diabetes [1]). This score, ABCD(2), validated well (c statistics 0.62-0.83); overall, 1012 (21%) of patients were classified as high risk (score 6-7, 8.1% 2-day risk), 2169 (45%) as moderate risk (score 4-5, 4.1%), and 1628 (34%) as low risk (score 0-3, 1.0%).
IMPLICATIONS: Existing prognostic scores for stroke risk after TIA validate well on multiple independent cohorts, but the unified ABCD(2) score is likely to be most predictive. Patients at high risk need immediate evaluation to optimise stroke prevention.

PMID 17258668  Lancet. 2007 Jan 27;369(9558):283-92. doi: 10.1016/S014・・・
著者:
雑誌名: Stroke. 1990 Apr;21(4):637-76.
Abstract/Text
PMID 2326846  Stroke. 1990 Apr;21(4):637-76.
著者: S Claiborne Johnston
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2002 Nov 21;347(21):1687-92. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp020891.
Abstract/Text
PMID 12444184  N Engl J Med. 2002 Nov 21;347(21):1687-92. doi: 10.1056・・・
著者: M S Pessin, G W Duncan, J P Mohr, D C Poskanzer
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 1977 Feb 17;296(7):358-62. doi: 10.1056/NEJM197702172960703.
Abstract/Text To determine the prevalence of radiologically evident carotid stenosis in patients with transient cerebral ischemic attacks, we analyzed 95 consecutive hospitalized patients who during a two-year period had appropriate symptoms and also underwent angiography. Pure transient hemisphere symptoms affected 52 patients, pure monocular blindness occurred in 33, and 10 experienced each type of attack separately. Tight stenosis (less than or equal to 2 mm) or occlusion was present in 49 patients (52 per cent). Thirteen patients showed intracranial-branch occlusion, nine of whom had no notable stenosis. Only two clinical transient ischemic attack features correlated with angiographic findings: in transient hemisphere attacks lasting for one hour or longer, the carotid arteries revealed no notable stenosis (0.05 less than P less than 0.1); and separate hemisphere and ocular attacks in the same patient correlated with tight carotid stenosis. On the basis of the angiographic findings, the study indicates there are several distinct groups of patients with carotid transient ischemic attacks.

PMID 834199  N Engl J Med. 1977 Feb 17;296(7):358-62. doi: 10.1056/N・・・
著者: Toshiya Ishihara, Shoichiro Sato, Toshiyuki Uehara, Tomoyuki Ohara, Mikito Hayakawa, Kazumi Kimura, Yasushi Okada, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Norio Tanahashi, Akifumi Suzuki, Jyoji Nakagawara, Kazumasa Arii, Shinji Nagahiro, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Masayasu Matsumoto, Koji Iihara, Kazunori Toyoda, Kazuo Minematsu, PROMISE-TIA Study Investigators
雑誌名: Stroke. 2018 Aug;49(8):1893-1898. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022009.
Abstract/Text Background and Purpose- Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) occasionally show nonfocal symptoms, such as unconsciousness, amnesia, and unsteadiness. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics and prognosis of patients with TIA with nonfocal symptoms, using data from the PROMISE-TIA (Prospective Multicenter Registry to Identify Subsequent Cardiovascular Events After Transient Ischemic Attack). Methods- Patients with TIA within 7 days of onset were consecutively enrolled in the Japanese nationwide registry. Factors associated with nonfocal symptoms and 1-year risks of ischemic stroke and coronary artery diseases were assessed in multivariate-adjusted models. Results- We studied 1362 patients with TIA (879 men; mean age, 69±12 years), including 219 (16%) with nonfocal symptoms. Patients with TIA with nonfocal symptoms were more likely to show acute ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation on diffusion-weighted imaging (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-5.82) and arterial stenosis or occlusion in the posterior circulation on vascular examination (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.09) than those without nonfocal symptoms. Although 1-year risk of ischemic stroke did not differ significantly between groups (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.37), risk of coronary artery disease was higher in patients with TIA with nonfocal symptoms (hazard ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-9.03). Conclusions- Both acute ischemic lesions and arterial stenosis and occlusion in the posterior circulation were more frequently observed in patients with TIA with nonfocal symptoms.

PMID 30012818  Stroke. 2018 Aug;49(8):1893-1898. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAH・・・
著者: Koji Tanaka, Toshiyuki Uehara, Kazumi Kimura, Yasushi Okada, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Norio Tanahashi, Akifumi Suzuki, Jyoji Nakagawara, Kazumasa Arii, Shinji Nagahiro, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Masayasu Matsumoto, Koji Iihara, Kazunori Toyoda, Kazuo Minematsu, PROMISE-TIA study Investigators
雑誌名: J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Jun;27(6):1711-1716. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.01.031. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: A transient visual symptom (TVS) is a clinical manifestation of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The aim of this study was to investigate differences in clinical characteristics among subtypes of TVS using multicenter TIA registry data.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with TIA visiting within 7 days of onset were prospectively enrolled from 57 hospitals between June 2011 and December 2013. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with 3 major subtypes of TVS (transient monocular blindness [TMB], homonymous lateral hemianopia [HLH], and diplopia).
RESULTS: Of 1365 patients, 106 (7.8%) had TVS, including 40 TMB (38%), 34 HLH (32%), 17 diplopia (16%), and 15 others/unknown (14%). Ninety-one patients with 1 of the 3 major subtypes of TVS were included. Symptoms persisted on arrival in 12 (13%) patients. Isolated TVS was significantly more common in TMB than in HLH and diplopia (88%, 62%, and 0%, respectively; P < .001). Duration of symptoms was shorter in patients with TMB than those with HLH (P = .004). The ABCD2 score was significantly lower in patients with TMB compared with those with HLH and diplopia (median 2 [interquartile range 2-3] versus 3 [2-4] and 4 [2-5], respectively; P = .005). Symptomatic extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion was seen in 14 (16%) patients, and was more frequent in TMB than in HLH and diplopia (28%, 9%, and 0%, respectively; P = .015).
CONCLUSIONS: TVS was an uncommon symptom in our TIA multicenter cohort. Some differences in clinical characteristics were found among subtypes of TVS.

Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID 29525079  J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Jun;27(6):1711-1716. doi・・・
著者: M J Harrison, R Iansek, J Marshall
雑誌名: Stroke. 1986 May-Jun;17(3):391-2.
Abstract/Text A retrospective case note survey of 139 cases of carotid territory TIAs was carried out. Angiographic evidence of carotid stenosis was more frequently encountered when the patient's attacks consisted of symptoms suggestive of ischemia of small cortical territories with involvement restricted to the arm or leg or to dysphasia. Attacks of hemiparesis affecting face, arm and leg, or arm and leg were less often associated with carotid stenosis. If patients described any attacks of a restricted nature the chance of finding carotid stenosis was 47%, if not 16%. It is argued that these findings are a reflection of the varied pathogenesis of TIAs, and the relevance of this heterogeneity to the interpretation of clinical trials is briefly mentioned.

PMID 3715934  Stroke. 1986 May-Jun;17(3):391-2.
著者: Jacob S Elkins, Stephen Sidney, Daryl R Gress, Alan S Go, Allan L Bernstein, S Claiborne Johnston
雑誌名: Arch Neurol. 2002 Sep;59(9):1437-41.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend the use of electrocardiography (ECG) in the evaluation of transient ischemic attack (TIA), but the data supporting its value in acute management are sparse.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ECG findings are useful as independent predictors of short-term cardiac or neurologic complications after TIA.
METHODS: We included patients who presented to 1 of 16 emergency departments of a health maintenance organization in northern California and received a diagnosis of TIA from March 1, 1997, through February 28, 1998, for a 90-day follow-up. A cardiac event was defined as a hospitalization or a death due to myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, or unstable angina.
RESULTS: Among the 1327 patients with TIA for whom ECG findings were available for diagnostic coding, cardiac events occurred in 2.9%, strokes in 10.9%, recurrent TIAs in 13.7%, and deaths in 2.6% during 90-day follow-up. The ECG findings disclosed a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in 28 (2.3%) of the 1200 patients with no history of this condition. The 90-day risk for a cardiac event was greater in those who had any abnormal ECG findings (4.2% vs 0.6%; P<.001). This association remained significant after adjustment for medical history and examination findings (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-29.5; P =.009). Left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, and atrioventricular conduction abnormalities were each independently associated with more than doubling of the risk. The ECG abnormalities were not associated with risk for stroke or death.
CONCLUSIONS: Short-term cardiac morbidity is substantial after TIA. Electrocardiographic findings disclose new atrial fibrillation in a significant portion of patients with TIA and can identify a group of patients at a substantially higher risk for short-term cardiac events.

PMID 12223031  Arch Neurol. 2002 Sep;59(9):1437-41.
著者: Orla C Sheehan, Aine Merwick, Lisa A Kelly, Niamh Hannon, Michael Marnane, Lorraine Kyne, Patricia M E McCormack, Joseph Duggan, Alan Moore, Joan Moroney, Leslie Daly, Dawn Harris, Gillian Horgan, Peter J Kelly
雑誌名: Stroke. 2009 Nov;40(11):3449-54. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.557074. Epub 2009 Sep 10.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnosis is frequently difficult in clinical practice. Noncerebrovascular symptoms are often misclassified as TIA by nonspecialist physicians. Clinical prediction rules such as ABCD(2) improve the identification of patients with TIA at high risk of early stroke. We hypothesized that the ABCD(2) score may partly improve risk stratification due to improved discrimination of true TIA and minor ischemic stroke (MIS) from noncerebrovascular events.
METHODS: Consecutive patients with TIA were identified within a prospective population-based cohort study of stroke and TIA. The cohort was expanded by inclusion of patients with MIS and noncerebrovascular events referred to a daily TIA clinic serving the population. Diagnosis was assigned by a trained stroke physician independent of ABCD(2) score.
RESULTS: Five hundred ninety-four patients were included (292 [49.2%] TIA, 45 [7.6%] MIS, and 257 [43.3%] noncerebrovascular). The mean ABCD(2) score showed a graded increase across diagnostic groups (MIS mean 4.8 [SD 1.4] versus TIA mean 3.9 [SD 1.5] versus noncerebrovascular mean 2.9 [SD 1.5]; P<0.00001). The ABCD(2) score discriminated well between noncerebrovascular and cerebrovascular events-TIA (c-statistic 0.68; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.72), any vascular event (TIA+MIS; c-statistic 0.7; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74), and MIS (c-statistic 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.87)-from noncerebrovascular events. Of ABCD(2) items, unilateral weakness (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 3.1 to 6.6) and speech disturbance (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6, 4.1) were most likely overrepresented in TIA compared with noncerebrovascular groups.
CONCLUSIONS: The ABCD(2) score had significant diagnostic usefulness for discrimination of true TIA and MIS from noncerebrovascular events, which may contribute to its predictive usefulness.

PMID 19745173  Stroke. 2009 Nov;40(11):3449-54. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA・・・
著者: Pierre Amarenco, Philippa C Lavallée, Julien Labreuche, Gregory W Albers, Natan M Bornstein, Patrícia Canhão, Louis R Caplan, Geoffrey A Donnan, José M Ferro, Michael G Hennerici, Carlos Molina, Peter M Rothwell, Leila Sissani, David Školoudík, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Pierre-Jean Touboul, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Éric Vicaut, Lawrence K S Wong, TIAregistry.org Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 21;374(16):1533-42. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1412981.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Previous studies conducted between 1997 and 2003 estimated that the risk of stroke or an acute coronary syndrome was 12 to 20% during the first 3 months after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. The TIAregistry.org project was designed to describe the contemporary profile, etiologic factors, and outcomes in patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke who receive care in health systems that now offer urgent evaluation by stroke specialists.
METHODS: We recruited patients who had had a TIA or minor stroke within the previous 7 days. Sites were selected if they had systems dedicated to urgent evaluation of patients with TIA. We estimated the 1-year risk of stroke and of the composite outcome of stroke, an acute coronary syndrome, or death from cardiovascular causes. We also examined the association of the ABCD(2) score for the risk of stroke (range, 0 [lowest risk] to 7 [highest risk]), findings on brain imaging, and cause of TIA or minor stroke with the risk of recurrent stroke over a period of 1 year.
RESULTS: From 2009 through 2011, we enrolled 4789 patients at 61 sites in 21 countries. A total of 78.4% of the patients were evaluated by stroke specialists within 24 hours after symptom onset. A total of 33.4% of the patients had an acute brain infarction, 23.2% had at least one extracranial or intracranial stenosis of 50% or more, and 10.4% had atrial fibrillation. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 1-year event rate of the composite cardiovascular outcome was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 5.5 to 7.0). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the stroke rate at days 2, 7, 30, 90, and 365 were 1.5%, 2.1%, 2.8%, 3.7%, and 5.1%, respectively. In multivariable analyses, multiple infarctions on brain imaging, large-artery atherosclerosis, and an ABCD(2) score of 6 or 7 were each associated with more than a doubling of the risk of stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a lower risk of cardiovascular events after TIA than previously reported. The ABCD(2) score, findings on brain imaging, and status with respect to large-artery atherosclerosis helped stratify the risk of recurrent stroke within 1 year after a TIA or minor stroke. (Funded by Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb.).

PMID 27096581  N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 21;374(16):1533-42. doi: 10.1056・・・
著者: Pierre Amarenco, Philippa C Lavallée, Linsay Monteiro Tavares, Julien Labreuche, Gregory W Albers, Halim Abboud, Sabrina Anticoli, Heinrich Audebert, Natan M Bornstein, Louis R Caplan, Manuel Correia, Geoffrey A Donnan, José M Ferro, Fernando Gongora-Rivera, Wolfgang Heide, Michael G Hennerici, Peter J Kelly, Michal Král, Hsiu-Fen Lin, Carlos Molina, Jong Moo Park, Francisco Purroy, Peter M Rothwell, Tomas Segura, David Školoudík, P Gabriel Steg, Pierre-Jean Touboul, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Éric Vicaut, Yongjun Wang, Lawrence K S Wong, TIAregistry.org Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 7;378(23):2182-2190. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1802712. Epub 2018 May 16.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: After a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke, the long-term risk of stroke and other vascular events is not well known. In this follow-up to a report on 1-year outcomes from a registry of TIA clinics in 21 countries that enrolled 4789 patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke from 2009 through 2011, we examined the 5-year risk of stroke and vascular events.
METHODS: We evaluated patients who had had a TIA or minor stroke within 7 days before enrollment in the registry. Among 61 sites that participated in the 1-year outcome study, we selected 42 sites that had follow-up data on more than 50% of their enrolled patients at 5 years. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke, acute coronary syndrome, or death from cardiovascular causes (whichever occurred first), with an emphasis on events that occurred in the second through fifth years. In calculating the cumulative incidence of the primary outcome and secondary outcomes (except death from any cause), we treated death as a competing risk.
RESULTS: A total of 3847 patients were included in the 5-year follow-up study; the median percentage of patients with 5-year follow-up data per center was 92.3% (interquartile range, 83.4 to 97.8). The composite primary outcome occurred in 469 patients (estimated cumulative rate, 12.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.8 to 14.1), with 235 events (50.1%) occurring in the second through fifth years. At 5 years, strokes had occurred in 345 patients (estimated cumulative rate, 9.5%; 95% CI, 8.5 to 10.5), with 149 of these patients (43.2%) having had a stroke during the second through fifth years. Rates of death from any cause, death from cardiovascular causes, intracranial hemorrhage, and major bleeding were 10.6%, 2.7%, 1.1%, and 1.5%, respectively, at 5 years. In multivariable analyses, ipsilateral large-artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolism, and a baseline ABCD2 score for the risk of stroke (range, 0 to 7, with higher scores indicating greater risk) of 4 or more were each associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: In a follow-up to a 1-year study involving patients who had a TIA or minor stroke, the rate of cardiovascular events including stroke in a selected cohort was 6.4% in the first year and 6.4% in the second through fifth years. (Funded by AstraZeneca and others.).

PMID 29766771  N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 7;378(23):2182-2190. doi: 10.105・・・
著者: Caren M Wu, Kevin McLaughlin, Diane L Lorenzetti, Michael D Hill, Braden J Manns, William A Ghali
雑誌名: Arch Intern Med. 2007 Dec 10;167(22):2417-22. doi: 10.1001/archinte.167.22.2417.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Recent observational studies suggest that the risk for stroke may be high in the first 90 days after transient ischemic attack (TIA). This finding may, however, not be consistent across existing studies assessing stroke risk after TIA. The objectives of our study were to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating the risk of stroke at 2, 30, and 90 days after TIA and to explore clinical and methodological factors that may explain variability in findings across studies.
METHODS: Articles were obtained by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1996 to present), MEDLINE (1966 to present), EMBASE (1980 to present), CINAHL (1982 to present), and BIOSIS previews (1980 to present). Searches were supplemented by scanning bibliographies of included articles, review articles, and conference proceedings and by contacting an expert in the field. Abstracts were retained if they reported original data and addressed early risk of stroke in patients with TIA. We identified 51 candidate studies reporting early risk of stroke after TIA. Two reviewers independently extracted information from 11 selected studies. Indicators of study quality were collected and included consecutive enrollment, losses to follow-up, explicit criteria used to define TIA and stroke, and method of ascertainment. Pooled early risk of stroke was estimated using fixed and random effects models, and meta-regression was used to assess the association between clinical and methodological factors and the reported early risk of stroke.
RESULTS: Based on a random effects model, the pooled early risk of stroke was 3.5%, 8.0%, and 9.2% at 2, 30, and 90 days after TIA, respectively. Studies reported higher risks when the methodology involved active ascertainment of stroke outcome compared with passive ascertainment. Early risk of stroke was 9.9%, 13.4%, and 17.3% at 2, 30, and 90 days, respectively, when only studies with active outcome ascertainment were considered.
CONCLUSIONS: Transient ischemic attack is associated with high early risk of stroke. The methodological design of studies accounts for some of the variability seen in previous reports of early stroke risk after TIA.

PMID 18071162  Arch Intern Med. 2007 Dec 10;167(22):2417-22. doi: 10.1・・・
著者: Lynda D Lisabeth, Jennifer K Ireland, Jan M H Risser, Devin L Brown, Melinda A Smith, Nelda M Garcia, Lewis B Morgenstern
雑誌名: Stroke. 2004 Aug;35(8):1842-6. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000134416.89389.9d. Epub 2004 Jun 10.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke risk after transient ischemic attack (TIA) has not been examined in an ethnically diverse population-based community setting. The purpose of this study was to identify stroke risk among TIA patients in a population-based cerebrovascular disease surveillance project.
METHODS: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project prospectively ascertains stroke and TIA cases in a geographically isolated Southeast Texas County. The community is approximately half Mexican American and half nonHispanic white. Cases are validated by board-certified neurologists using source documentation. Cumulative risk for stroke after TIA was determined using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for associations between stroke risk after TIA and demographics, symptoms, risk factors, and history of stroke/TIA.
RESULTS: BASIC identified 612 TIA cases between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2002; 60.9% were female and 48.0% were Mexican American. Median age was 73.8 years. Stroke risk within 2 days, 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 12 months was 1.64%, 1.97%, 3.15%, 4.03%, and 7.27%, respectively. Stroke risk was not influenced by ethnicity, symptoms, or risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Using a population-based design, we found that early stroke risk after TIA was less than previously reported in this bi-ethnic population of Mexican Americans and nonHispanic whites. Approximately half of the 90-day stroke risk after TIA occurred within 2 days.

PMID 15192239  Stroke. 2004 Aug;35(8):1842-6. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000・・・
著者: A Chandratheva, Z Mehta, O C Geraghty, L Marquardt, P M Rothwell, Oxford Vascular Study
雑誌名: Neurology. 2009 Jun 2;72(22):1941-7. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181a826ad.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Several recent guidelines recommend assessment of patients with TIA within 24 hours, but it is uncertain how many recurrent strokes occur within 24 hours. It is also unclear whether the ABCD2 risk score reliably identifies recurrences in the first few hours.
METHODS: In a prospective, population-based incidence study of TIA and stroke with complete follow-up (Oxford Vascular Study), we determined the 6-, 12-, and 24-hour risks of recurrent stroke, defined as new neurologic symptoms of sudden onset after initial recovery.
RESULTS: Of 1,247 first TIA or strokes, 35 had recurrent strokes within 24 hours, all in the same arterial territory. The initial event had recovered prior to the recurrent stroke (i.e., was a TIA) in 25 cases. The 6-, 12-, and 24-hour stroke risks after 488 first TIAs were 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2-2.2), 2.1% (0.8-3.2), and 5.1% (3.1-7.1), with 42% of all strokes during the 30 days after a first TIA occurring within the first 24 hours. The 12- and 24-hour risks were strongly related to ABCD2 score (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0003). Sixteen (64%) of the 25 cases sought urgent medical attention prior to the recurrent stroke, but none received antiplatelet treatment acutely.
CONCLUSION: That about half of all recurrent strokes during the 7 days after a TIA occur in the first 24 hours highlights the need for emergency assessment. That the ABCD2 score is reliable in the hyperacute phase shows that appropriately triaged emergency assessment and treatment are feasible.

PMID 19487652  Neurology. 2009 Jun 2;72(22):1941-7. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0・・・
著者: Takuya Kiyohara, Masahiro Kamouchi, Yasuhiro Kumai, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Jun Hata, Sohei Yoshimura, Tetsuro Ago, Yasushi Okada, Takanari Kitazono, Fukuoka Stroke Registry Investigators
雑誌名: Stroke. 2014 Feb;45(2):418-25. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003077. Epub 2013 Dec 12.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several risk scores have been developed to predict the stroke risk after transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, the validation of these scores in different cohorts is still limited. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether these scores were able to predict short-term and long-term risks of stroke in patients with TIA.
METHODS: From the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, 693 patients with TIA were followed up for 3 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the hazard ratio of risk factors for stroke. The discriminatory ability of each risk score for incident stroke was estimated by using C-statistics and continuous net reclassification improvement.
RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model revealed that dual TIA and carotid stenosis were both significant predictors for stroke after TIA, whereas abnormal diffusion-weighted image was not. ABCD3 (C-statistics 0.61) and ABCD3-I (C-statistics 0.66) scores improved the short-term predictive ability for stroke (at 7 days) compared with the ABCD2 score (C-statistics 0.54). Addition of intracranial arterial stenosis (at 3 years, continuous net reclassification improvement 30.5%; P<0.01) and exclusion of abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging (at 3 years, continuous net reclassification improvement 24.0%; P<0.05) further improved the predictive ability for stroke risk until 3 years after TIA.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that ABCD3 and ABCD3-I scores are superior to the ABCD2 score for the prediction of subsequent stroke in patients with TIA. Addition of neuroimaging in the ABCD3 score may enable prediction of long-term stroke risk after TIA.

PMID 24335223  Stroke. 2014 Feb;45(2):418-25. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.1・・・
著者: J F Fairhead, Z Mehta, P M Rothwell
雑誌名: Neurology. 2005 Aug 9;65(3):371-5. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000170368.82460.b4.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Benefit from carotid endarterectomy is greatest when performed within 2 weeks of a presenting TIA or stroke and decreases rapidly thereafter.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the delays to carotid imaging and endarterectomy in Oxfordshire, UK, and the consequences for the effectiveness of stroke prevention.
METHODS: All patients undergoing carotid imaging for ischemic retinal or cerebral TIA or stroke were identified in two populations: the population of Oxfordshire, UK (n = 680,772), from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2003, and the Oxford Vascular Study (OXVASC) subpopulation (n = 92,000) from April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. The times from presenting event to referral, scanning, and endarterectomy (Oxfordshire population) and the risk of stroke prior to endarterectomy in patients with > or = 50% symptomatic carotid stenosis (OXVASC population) were determined.
RESULTS: Among 853 patients who had carotid imaging in the Oxfordshire population, median (interquartile range) times from presenting event to referral, scanning, and endarterectomy were 9 (3 to 30), 33 (12 to 62), and 100 (59 to 137) days. Eighty-five patients were found to have 50 to 99% symptomatic stenosis, of whom 49 had endarterectomy. Only 3 (6%) had surgery within 2 weeks of their presenting event and only 21 (43%) within 12 weeks. The risk of stroke prior to endarterectomy in the OXVASC subpopulation with > or = 50% stenosis was 21% (8 to 34%) at 2 weeks and 32% (17 to 47%) at 12 weeks, in half of which strokes were disabling or fatal.
CONCLUSION: Delays to carotid imaging and endarterectomy after TIA or stroke in the United Kingdom are similar to those reported in several other countries and are associated with very high risks of otherwise preventable early recurrent stroke.

PMID 16087900  Neurology. 2005 Aug 9;65(3):371-5. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.・・・
著者: David Calvet, Emmanuel Touzé, Catherine Oppenheim, Guillaume Turc, Jean-François Meder, Jean-Louis Mas
雑誌名: Stroke. 2009 Jan;40(1):187-92. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.515817. Epub 2008 Nov 6.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ABCD(2) score has been shown to predict the early risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA). The additional predictive value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and TIA etiology is not well known.
METHODS: From January 2003 to June 2007, 343 consecutive patients (mean+/-SD age, 62.4+/-15.4 years) with TIA were admitted to our stroke unit. Most (339) patients underwent DWI and all had an etiologic work-up and were followed up for 3 months. The predictive value of the ABCD(2) score, positive DWI findings, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), and atrial fibrillation (AF) with respect to occurrence of ischemic stroke at 1 week and 3 months was assessed.
RESULTS: DWI was positive in 136 (40%) patients. Sixty (17%) patients had LAA and 27 (8%) had AF. Patients with positive DWI findings were more likely to have unilateral weakness (odds ratio [OR]=2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.7), TIA duration >/=60 minutes (OR=2.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.2), ABCD(2) >5 (OR=4.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 11.0), LAA (OR=1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and AF (OR=3.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 8.0). During follow-up, 5 patients had a stroke within 7 days (absolute risk=1.5%, 95% CI, 0.3% to 2.7%), and 10 had a stroke within 3 months (absolute risk=2.9%; 95% CI, 1.1% to 4.7%). All early strokes but 1 occurred in patients with positive DWI findings. ABCD(2) score and positive DWI findings were associated with an increased 7-day and 3-month risk of stroke. At 3 months, ABCD(2) score >5 (hazard ratio=10.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 93.4), positive DWI result (hazard ratio=8.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 71.0), and LAA (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 11.8) were independently associated with an increased risk of stroke. There was no association with AF.
CONCLUSIONS: Taking DWI and TIA etiology into account in addition to the ABCD(2) score improves the prediction of the early risk of stroke after TIA.

PMID 18988917  Stroke. 2009 Jan;40(1):187-92. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.1・・・
著者: H C Diener, J D Easton, G J Hankey, R G Hart
雑誌名: Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2013 Jun;26(2):131-9. doi: 10.1016/j.beha.2013.07.007. Epub 2013 Jul 30.
Abstract/Text In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) oral anticoagulation with vitamin-K antagonists (warfarin, phenprocoumon) is effective both for primary and secondary stroke prevention yielding a 60-70% relative reduction in stroke risk compared with placebo, as well as a mortality reduction of 26 percent. Vitamin-K antagonists have a number of well documented shortcomings. Recently the results of randomised trials for three new oral anticoagulants that do not exhibit the limitations of vitamin-K antagonists have been published. These include direct factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban) and a direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran). The studies (RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, ARISTOTLE, AVERROES) provide promising results for the new agents, including higher efficacy and a significantly lower incidence of intracranial bleeds compared with warfarin or aspirin. The new drugs show similar results in secondary as well as in primary stroke prevention in patients with AF. Apixaban was demonstrated to be clearly superior to aspirin and had the same rate of major bleeding complications. Meta-analyses show that the novel anticoagulants are superior to warfarin for the reduction of stroke, major bleeding and intracranial bleeds. New anticoagulants add to the therapeutic options for patients with AF, and offer a number of advantages over warfarin, for both the clinician and patient, including a favorable bleeding profile and convenience of use. Aspirin is no longer an option in secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Consideration of these new anticoagulants will improve clinical decision making.

Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
PMID 23953901  Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2013 Jun;26(2):131-9. doi・・・
著者: Yongjun Wang, Yilong Wang, Xingquan Zhao, Liping Liu, David Wang, Chunxue Wang, Chen Wang, Hao Li, Xia Meng, Liying Cui, Jianping Jia, Qiang Dong, Anding Xu, Jinsheng Zeng, Yansheng Li, Zhimin Wang, Haiqin Xia, S Claiborne Johnston, CHANCE Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2013 Jul 4;369(1):11-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1215340. Epub 2013 Jun 26.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Stroke is common during the first few weeks after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke. Combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin may provide greater protection against subsequent stroke than aspirin alone.
METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 114 centers in China, we randomly assigned 5170 patients within 24 hours after the onset of minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA to combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin (clopidogrel at an initial dose of 300 mg, followed by 75 mg per day for 90 days, plus aspirin at a dose of 75 mg per day for the first 21 days) or to placebo plus aspirin (75 mg per day for 90 days). All participants received open-label aspirin at a clinician-determined dose of 75 to 300 mg on day 1. The primary outcome was stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) during 90 days of follow-up in an intention-to-treat analysis. Treatment differences were assessed with the use of a Cox proportional-hazards model, with study center as a random effect.
RESULTS: Stroke occurred in 8.2% of patients in the clopidogrel-aspirin group, as compared with 11.7% of those in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.81; P<0.001). Moderate or severe hemorrhage occurred in seven patients (0.3%) in the clopidogrel-aspirin group and in eight (0.3%) in the aspirin group (P=0.73); the rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.3% in each group.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with TIA or minor stroke who can be treated within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms, the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin is superior to aspirin alone for reducing the risk of stroke in the first 90 days and does not increase the risk of hemorrhage. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China; CHANCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00979589.).

PMID 23803136  N Engl J Med. 2013 Jul 4;369(1):11-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJM・・・
著者: S Claiborne Johnston, J Donald Easton, Mary Farrant, William Barsan, Robin A Conwit, Jordan J Elm, Anthony S Kim, Anne S Lindblad, Yuko Y Palesch, Clinical Research Collaboration, Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials Network, and the POINT Investigators
雑誌名: N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):215-225. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1800410. Epub 2018 May 16.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Combination antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin may reduce the rate of recurrent stroke during the first 3 months after a minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). A trial of combination antiplatelet therapy in a Chinese population has shown a reduction in the risk of recurrent stroke. We tested this combination in an international population.
METHODS: In a randomized trial, we assigned patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA to receive either clopidogrel at a loading dose of 600 mg on day 1, followed by 75 mg per day, plus aspirin (at a dose of 50 to 325 mg per day) or the same range of doses of aspirin alone. The dose of aspirin in each group was selected by the site investigator. The primary efficacy outcome in a time-to-event analysis was the risk of a composite of major ischemic events, which was defined as ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from an ischemic vascular event, at 90 days.
RESULTS: A total of 4881 patients were enrolled at 269 international sites. The trial was halted after 84% of the anticipated number of patients had been enrolled because the data and safety monitoring board had determined that the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin was associated with both a lower risk of major ischemic events and a higher risk of major hemorrhage than aspirin alone at 90 days. Major ischemic events occurred in 121 of 2432 patients (5.0%) receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin and in 160 of 2449 patients (6.5%) receiving aspirin plus placebo (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.95; P=0.02), with most events occurring during the first week after the initial event. Major hemorrhage occurred in 23 patients (0.9%) receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin and in 10 patients (0.4%) receiving aspirin plus placebo (hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.87; P=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA, those who received a combination of clopidogrel and aspirin had a lower risk of major ischemic events but a higher risk of major hemorrhage at 90 days than those who received aspirin alone. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; POINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991029 .).

PMID 29766750  N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):215-225. doi: 10.1056/・・・
著者: R Bond, K Rerkasem, P M Rothwell
雑誌名: Stroke. 2003 Sep;34(9):2290-301. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000087785.01407.CC. Epub 2003 Aug 14.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reliable data on the risk of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in relation to clinical indication and timing of surgery are necessary to target CEA more effectively, to inform patients, to adjust risks for case mix, and to understand the mechanisms of operative stroke.
METHODS: We performed a systematic review of all studies published from 1980 to 2000 inclusive that reported the risk of stroke and death resulting from CEA. Pooled estimates of risk by type of presenting ischemic event and time since the last event were obtained by Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Of 383 published studies, only 103 stratified risk by indication. Although the operative risk for symptomatic stenosis overall was higher than for asymptomatic stenosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 1.81; P<0.00001; 59 studies), risk in patients with ocular events only tended to be lower than for asymptomatic stenosis (OR, 0.75, 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.14; 15 studies). Operative risk was the same for stroke and cerebral transient ischemic attack (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.35; P=0.08; 23 studies) but higher for cerebral transient ischemic attack than for ocular events only (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.72 to 3.12; P<0.00001; 19 studies) and for CEA for restenosis than primary surgery (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.21 to 3.16; P=0.018; 6 studies). Urgent CEA for evolving symptoms had a much higher risk (19.2%, 95% CI, 10.7 to 27.8) than CEA for stable symptoms (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.7 to 5.7; P<0.001; 13 studies), but there was no difference between early (<3 to 6 weeks) and late (>3 to 6 weeks) CEA for stroke in stable patients (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.62; P=0.62; 11 studies). All observations were highly consistent across studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Risk of stroke and death resulting from CEA is highly dependent on the clinical indication. Audits of risk should be stratified accordingly, and patients should be informed of the risk that relates to their presenting event.

PMID 12920260  Stroke. 2003 Sep;34(9):2290-301. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.00・・・
著者: Peter M Rothwell, Matthew F Giles, Arvind Chandratheva, Lars Marquardt, Olivia Geraghty, Jessica N E Redgrave, Caroline E Lovelock, Lucy E Binney, Linda M Bull, Fiona C Cuthbertson, Sarah J V Welch, Shelley Bosch, Faye C Alexander, Faye Carasco-Alexander, Louise E Silver, Sergei A Gutnikov, Ziyah Mehta, Early use of Existing Preventive Strategies for Stroke (EXPRESS) study
雑誌名: Lancet. 2007 Oct 20;370(9596):1432-42. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61448-2.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: The risk of recurrent stroke is up to 10% in the week after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Modelling studies suggest that urgent use of existing preventive treatments could reduce the risk by 80-90%, but in the absence of evidence many health-care systems make little provision. Our aim was to determine the effect of more rapid treatment after TIA and minor stroke in patients who are not admitted direct to hospital.
METHODS: We did a prospective before (phase 1: April 1, 2002, to Sept 30, 2004) versus after (phase 2: Oct 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007) study of the effect on process of care and outcome of more urgent assessment and immediate treatment in clinic, rather than subsequent initiation in primary care, in all patients with TIA or minor stroke not admitted direct to hospital. The study was nested within a rigorous population-based incidence study of all TIA and stroke (Oxford Vascular Study; OXVASC), such that case ascertainment, investigation, and follow-up were complete and identical in both periods. The primary outcome was the risk of stroke within 90 days of first seeking medical attention, with independent blinded (to study period) audit of all events.
FINDINGS: Of the 1278 patients in OXVASC who presented with TIA or stroke (634 in phase 1 and 644 in phase 2), 607 were referred or presented direct to hospital, 620 were referred for outpatient assessment, and 51 were not referred to secondary care. 95% (n=591) of all outpatient referrals were to the study clinic. Baseline characteristics and delays in seeking medical attention were similar in both periods, but median delay to assessment in the study clinic fell from 3 (IQR 2-5) days in phase 1 to less than 1 (0-3) day in phase 2 (p<0.0001), and median delay to first prescription of treatment fell from 20 (8-53) days to 1 (0-3) day (p<0.0001). The 90-day risk of recurrent stroke in the patients referred to the study clinic was 10.3% (32/310 patients) in phase 1 and 2.1% (6/281 patients) in phase 2 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.49; p=0.0001); there was no significant change in risk in patients treated elsewhere. The reduction in risk was independent of age and sex, and early treatment did not increase the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage or other bleeding.
INTERPRETATION: Early initiation of existing treatments after TIA or minor stroke was associated with an 80% reduction in the risk of early recurrent stroke. Further follow-up is required to determine long-term outcome, but these results have immediate implications for service provision and public education about TIA and minor stroke.

PMID 17928046  Lancet. 2007 Oct 20;370(9596):1432-42. doi: 10.1016/S01・・・
著者: Philippa C Lavallée, Elena Meseguer, Halim Abboud, Lucie Cabrejo, Jean-Marc Olivot, Olivier Simon, Mikael Mazighi, Chantal Nifle, Philippe Niclot, Bertrand Lapergue, Isabelle F Klein, Eric Brochet, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Guy Lesèche, Julien Labreuche, Pierre-Jean Touboul, Pierre Amarenco
雑誌名: Lancet Neurol. 2007 Nov;6(11):953-60. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70248-X.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of cerebral and retinal transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) are often delayed by the lack of immediate access to a dedicated TIA clinic. We evaluated the effects of rapid assessment of patients with TIA on clinical decision making, length of hospital stay, and subsequent stroke rates.
METHODS: We set up SOS-TIA, a hospital clinic with 24-h access. Patients were admitted if they had sudden retinal or cerebral focal symptoms judged to relate to ischaemia and if they made a total recovery. Assessment, which included neurological, arterial, and cardiac imaging, was within 4 h of admission. A leaflet about TIA with a toll-free telephone number for SOS-TIA was sent to 15 000 family doctors, cardiologists, neurologists, and ophthalmologists in Paris and its administrative region. Endpoints were stroke within 90 days, and stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death within 1 year.
FINDINGS: Between January, 2003, and December, 2005, we admitted 1085 patients with suspected TIA; 574 (53%) were seen within 24 h of symptom onset. 701 (65%) patients had confirmed TIA or minor stroke, and 144 (13%) had possible TIA. 108 (17%) of the 643 patients with confirmed TIA had brain tissue damage. Median duration of symptoms was 15 min (IQR 5-75 min). Of the patients with confirmed or possible TIA, all started a stroke prevention programme, 43 (5%) had urgent carotid revascularisation, and 44 (5%) were treated for atrial fibrillation with anticoagulants. 808 (74%) of all patients seen were sent home on the same day. The 90-day stroke rate was 1.24% (95% CI 0.72-2.12), whereas the rate predicted from ABCD(2) scores was 5.96%.
INTERPRETATION: Use of TIA clinics with 24-h access and immediate initiation of preventive treatment might greatly reduce length of hospital stay and risk of stroke compared with expected risk.

PMID 17928270  Lancet Neurol. 2007 Nov;6(11):953-60. doi: 10.1016/S147・・・
著者: Eva-Lotta Glader, Maria Sjölander, Marie Eriksson, Michael Lundberg
雑誌名: Stroke. 2010 Feb;41(2):397-401. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566950. Epub 2010 Jan 14.
Abstract/Text BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To prevent new cardiovascular events after stroke, prescribed preventive drugs should be used continuously. This study measures persistent use of preventive drugs after stroke and identifies factors associated with persistence.
METHODS: A 1-year cohort (21,077 survivors) from Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, was linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.
RESULTS: The proportion of patients who were persistent users of drugs prescribed at discharge from hospital declined progressively over the first 2 years to reach 74.2% for antihypertensive drugs, 56.1% for statins, 63.7% for antiplatelet drugs, and 45.0% for warfarin. For most drugs, advanced age, comorbidity, good self-perceived health, absence of low mood, acute treatment in a stroke unit, and institutional living at follow-up were independently associated with persistent medication use.
CONCLUSIONS: Persistent secondary prevention treatment declines rapidly during the first 2 years after stroke, particularly for statins and warfarin. Effective interventions to improve persistent secondary prevention after stroke need to be developed.

PMID 20075360  Stroke. 2010 Feb;41(2):397-401. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.・・・

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以下の優待コードを入力いただくと、

契約期間が通常12ヵ月のところ、14ヵ月ご利用いただけます。

優待コード: (利用期限:まで)

ご契約はこちらから